A REVIEW OF CONTENT IN M-LEARNING 1

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A REVIEW OFCONTENT IN M-LEARNING 1

A Review of Content in M-Learning

Aysegul Kapucu

Gabriel Yeager

University of Central Florida

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A Review of Content inM-Learning

Education is a continuouslyprogressive topic. As a result, our group has been asked to collectand annotate ten articles related to our topic of mobile learning. Inour study of education and advancement in human performance, we beganby looking for additional methods of utilizing technology ininstruction. Mobile learning (m-learning) is a relatively newapproach to instruction which allows users a more readily-availablemethod of learning (Alrasheedi, Capretz, &amp Raza, 2015), incontrast to our traditional applications of instructional technology(Sung, Chang, &amp Liu, 2016). Although m-learning is relativelyyoung in research (Dold, 2016), it holds a significant value in thefuture of instructional technology (Li &amp Yang, 2016), and yieldsa great capacity for new and exciting means of learning usingimmersive technology (Burden &amp Kearney, 2016). Through a greaterunderstanding of pedagogy in m-learning technology (Cook, 2015), thefuture of instruction rests in the foundational research that iscurrently happening in m-learning to create a user-orientedenvironment for learning (AlTameemy, 2017).

The ten articles beingannotated in this paper were obtained online from the UCF Library`sInstructional Design &amp Technology/Educational Technologydatabases. First, the group was introduced into EBSCO IntegratedSearch Technique by the UCF librarian. The intention of the group wasto conduct the search in more than one database, which wasaccomplished by clicking the “Choose Databases Link” portal. Thiswas followed by marking of the check box that was located to the leftof the name (ERIC-EBSCOhost and Education Source-EBSCOhost) of thedatabase.

After accessing the database,the group came up with the most important research questions thatcould guide it during the search. Some of these questions include:What is mobile learning? How does mobile learning work? Who is doingmobile learning?

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Why is mobile learningsignificant? What are the downsides of mobile learning? Where ismobile learning going? What are implications of mobile learning forteaching and learning?

The key words were identifiedand connected using the Boolean operators (AND, OR, and NOT). Some ofthe key words that the group connected using the Boolean operatorsinclude Mobile Learning AND Definition Mobile Learning AND HigherEducation Mobile Learning AND Colleges OR Universities MobileLearning NOT Gaming Mobile Learning Implications AND Teaching ANDLearning. During the search, the group substituted some of therelated synonyms and terms with other key words to identify morearticles. For an example, the word “disadvantage” was substitutedwith the term “downsides.” The search process was successful andit helped the group identify ten relevant articles that are annotatedin this paper.

Alrasheedi, M., Capretz, L.F., &amp Raza, A. (2015). A systematic review of the criticalfactors for success of mobile learning in higher education(university students` perspective).

Journal of EducationalComputing Research, 52(2),257-276.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0735633115571928

The article addresses thecritical factors that determine the success of mobile learning in theinstitutions of higher education. The authors argue that the idea ofm-learning has gained popularity because it blends the idea ofmobility into the context of electronic learning. Mobility isachieved because m-learning allows students to take control of where,what, and when they want to learn. The authors gathered the evidenceneeded to support their thesis and arguments by conducting asystematic review of the previous studies. After conducting thissystematic review, the authors

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identified 13 key factors thatinfluence the success of m-learning in the context of highereducation.

The use of a systematic reviewmethodology allowed the authors to consider the views of manyscholars when advancing their argument. This method limited theircapacity to control the quality of data used in other articles, whichreduced the reliability of the findings. Inaddition, the study reported in the article was limited in scope,which denied the authors a chance to address the impact of individualsuccess factors on the perception of m-learning platform. Thislimited the capacity of the researchers to quantify the impact ofeach success factor, which would have informed the process ofimplementing m-learning in the future. However,the article is a useful source for getting an overview of the factorsthat have contributed to the success of e-learning.

AlTameemy, F. (2017). Mobilephones for teaching and learning: Implementation and students’ andteachers’ attitudes. Journalof Educational Technology Systems, 45(3),436-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0047239516659754

The article addresses theattitudes of learners and educators towards the application of mobiledevices in the process of learning as well as teaching. In addition,the author intends to determine whether there is a difference inattitudes among the users of these mobile devices depending on theirjob criteria. The author argues that mobile devices are liked by themajority of students. The author supports the ideas documented in thearticle by conducting a survey that facilitates the collection ofdata on the use of mobile devices by educators as well as learnersand their attitudes towards m-learning. The findings of the surveyindicate that only 4.79 % of the students surveyed do not use mobilephones in academic work.

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The use of the survey approachin conducting the study increased the representativeness of thepopulation being studied. In addition, the use of a questionnairehelped the researchers to collect a large amount of data, whichenhanced the reliabilityof the findings. However, the survey is an inflexibledesign that limited the autonomy of the researcher. Theauthors investigated attitudes using a questionnaire, instead ofusing the hands-on practice of using mobile devices in academic work.This limited the possibility of applying the findings in thereal-life situations. Nevertheless,the article is based on a scientific study, which makes it a usefulsource that will be used to explain why bothlearners and educators have a positive attitude towards the use ofmobile phones to share knowledge.

Brown, H., &amp Mbati, L. S.(2015). Mobile learning: Moving past the myths and embracing theopportunities. InternationalReview of Research in Open &amp Distance Learning,16(2),115-135.

The article addresses the keyconsiderations of m-learning and the skewed definitions offered inthe previous articles. The two authors attempt to redefine theconcept of m-learning by clarifying what it consists of and what itdoes in the education sector. The authors argue that the future ofm-learning is promising, even though it is a relatively new approachto learning. The thesis and arguments in the article are supported bythe evidence gathered from the literature review of the findingspresented in other articles and the opinion of the authors. Thefindings of the study indicate that mobile technology has disruptedthe structured and hierarchical teaching methods that have been usedfor centuries.

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The authors relied on theliterature review methodology, which limited their capacity tocontrol the quality of data used to make conclusions in the articlesthat were reviewed. Theinclusion of the opinion of the authors reduced the reliability ofthe article’s content. This is because opinion of experts could besubjective.

Its content will be used tosupport a discussion on opportunities that are made available bymobile learning.

Burden, K. &amp Kearney, M.(2016). Future scenarios for mobile science learning. Researchin ScienceEducation, 46(2),287-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9514-1

The article addresses thecontribution of m-learning in the field of science education, arguingthat mobile technology has gained popularity because it empowerslearners to overcome challenges in all learning environments. Thearticle argues that m-learning will most likely be able to erase theboundaries between “school” and “out-of-school” activities,merging learning into one unified seamless process. It alsoidentifies that m-learning empowers students to negotiate acrossphysical and virtual boundaries.

The use of a scenario planningapproach allowed the researchers to overcome the challengesassociated with inherent complexity and unpredictability of thecontemporary society, which enhanced the credibility of theirfindings. In addition, the study reported in the article was quitelimited in scope and it did not discuss how the mobile technologyaffects the formal as well as informal learning. This would haveindicated how the new technology blends with the traditional teachingas well as learning processes. It is a useful source that provides aninsight into the future of mobile learning and its content will beused to forecast the possible development that will occur in thefield of education following the use of these devices as tools forsharing knowledge.

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Cook, E. (2015). The future ofm-learning begins with baseline pedagogy. InternetLearning Journal,4(2), 25-36.

The article discusses theimportance of a suitable theory or pedagogy in ensuring the successof m-learning in the future. The author argues that m-learning isrelatively new and a chance for educators to establish valuable meansof instruction. However, there must be an appropriate pedagogy beforethe benefits of mobile learning can be realized. The article reportsthat the new technology has changed the way learners are able toaccess knowledge. Compared to the traditional classroom where thelearning is instructor-centered, m-learning provides alternativemethods of knowledge acquisition.

The article relies on thereview of literature design, which enables the assessment of trendsin the area of m-learning by different scholars, which limited theircapacity to control the quality of data. In addition, the use of areview of literature methodology implies that the authors includedthe limitations of the studies done by other scholars into theirstudy. This limited the credibility of the findings reported in thearticle. However, the article is a useful source that will be used tosupport the argument that m-learning facilitates the needed hybrid ofthe social element found in a traditional class with the flexibilityof the seemingly endless cross-cultural experience associated withe-learning.

Dold, C. J. (2016). Rethinkingmobile learning in light of current theories and studies.

Journal of AcademicLibrarianship,42(6), 679-686.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2016.08.004

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The article explores howmobile devices are used as instructional instruments in education.The article argues that the technology-based instructional mediumboosts learning by increasing the learners’ motivation andefficacy, and increases efficiency by sharing knowledge virtually.The article identifies that online learning, as a subset of thecurrent academic environment, allows students to study away from theclassroom, use close-up views of procedures, and demonstrate tasks ofshort duration. The article identifies that educators have not beenable to develop up-to-date teaching methods that can help themsucceed in the current environment.

The use of literature reviewas a methodology to source evidence to support the thesis of thearticle allowed the authors to consider the views of many scholars,which enhanced the credibility of the findings. Moreover, the studyhad a limited scope, which denied the authors the opportunity toaddress the construction of learning videos from the perspective ofthe developer. This denied the authors an opportunity to determinethe technical factors that need to be considered when developing them-learning strategies. The article will be used to support the notionthat video and online learning provide educators with an opportunityto reach students in a more effective and convenient way.

Kattayat, S., Josey, S., &ampAsha, J. V. (2017). Mobile learning apps in instruction and studentachievement. InternationalJournal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 11(1),143-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v11i1.6420

The article explores howmobile learning influences academic achievements among students. Itargues that the exponential increase in the availability of cheapmobile technology has presented challenges as well as opportunitiesto educators and learners.

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An experimental design wasused to collect data that enabled them to explorethe impact of mobile apps in students’ achievement. The articlefound that mobile technologyenhances academicachievement among students by addressing challenges associated withthe conventional learning environment, which include the lack ofsupport from educators, insufficient information about lab sessions,and the distance from academic institutions.

The use of experimentalmethodology to pursue the purpose of the article enhances thereliability of its findings since the researchers had control overthe variables and subjects. Moreover, the experimental design issubject to human errors. This could have limited the reliability ofthe findings that are reported in the article. Although this designcomplicated the research, it helped come up with credible results. Itis a useful source that will be used to advance an argument that thelow-cost mobile devices have created a new platform on which learnersand teachers can contact each other and share knowledge.

Li, X., &amp Yang, X. Y.(2016). Effects of learning styles and interest on the concentrationand achievement of students in mobile learning. Journalof Educational ComputingResearch, 54(7),922-945. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0735633116639953

The purpose of this article isto investigate how interest and learning style affect the level ofconcentration as well as the academic achievement in the context ofm-learning. The article argues that mobile devices facilitate thedevelopment of a collaborative environment, which boosts students’engagement and interest in the learning process. In this detailedresearch, the authors applied regression, correlation, and analysisof variation to find out how concentration and achievement is

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influenced in 92 Chinesecollege students in mobile learning. The authors also found out thatm-learning can increase the level of flexibility in the educationalcontext.

The random selection of thestudents who took part in the research minimized the risk ofsubjectivity, which enhanced the reliability of the results. Inaddition, theapplication ofregression analysis helped the authors establish the relationshipthat exists between the variables (including the interest and thelevel of concentration) considered in the study. Theuse of a self-evaluation questionnaire introduced the risk ofsubjectivity. These subjective findings limited the reliability ofthe findings. The research was also based on school-environment,which implies that the findings may not be applied in m-learning inother settings. Thearticle will be used to support an argument that m-learning increasethe academic achievement by enhancing the satisfaction of students.

Marzouki, O. F., Idrissi, M.K., &amp Bennani, S. (2017). Effects of social constructivist mobilelearning environments on knowledge acquisition: A meta-analysis.InternationalJournal ofInteractive Mobile Technologies, 11(1),18-39.http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3991/ijim.v11i1.5982

This article explores how asocial constructivist environment affects knowledge acquisitionefficacy and academic achievement in the context of m-learning. Thearticle argues that social constructivism is appropriate form-learning because it promotes the development of a positive attitudetowards the process of learning, social interaction, andcollaboration. The article relies on the meta-analysis researchdesign to pursue the purpose of their research. The results confirmedthe existence of a positive correlation between the use of mobiledevices to facilitate the process of learning and an increase inknowledge acquisition.

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The application of ameta-analysis approach allowed the researchers to improve the levelof accuracy and precision, which enhanced the reliability of thefindings. In addition, the research design enabled the authors toidentify trends in m-learning. The meta-analysis design is associatedwith publication bias, which increases the risk of bias. Moreover,the design denied the authors the chance to take control of variablesand data. This enhanced the accuracy as well as the reliability ofthe findings. It is a useful source that will be used to support anotion that learners’ achievements and motivation are fosteredsignificantly through the application of the mobile learningtechnology.

Sung, Y., Chang, K., &ampLiu, T. (2016). The effects of integrating mobile devices withteaching and learning on students’ learning performance: Ameta-analysis and research synthesis. Computers&amp Education, 94,252-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.008

The purpose of this articleis to determine the impact of the integration of mobile technologyand teaching on students’ performance. The article argues that theuse of this technology enhances the outdoor and the classroomenvironment, which contributes to an improvement in the learners’performance. The article identifies that the orchestration ofsoftware, mobile devices, and pedagogical design empower educationalpractitioners by providing them with a platform on which they caninteract with their students more conveniently.

The findings of a researchthat is based on a meta-analysis method can be generalized to similarpopulations, which implies that the results of this article arereliable and can be used to inform decisions in all online settings.However, the meta-analysis is a

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research design that deniesresearchers the opportunity to control the quality of data used byauthors of the past articles. The literature review was based onarticles that studies laptop as the only mobile device used inm-learning. This implies that the findings may not be generalized toother devices, such as mobile phones. The content of the article willbe used to enhance the understanding of how, for whom, and in whichways m-learning technologies would foster the learning environmentand outcomes.

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References

Alrasheedi, M., Capretz, L.F., &amp Raza, A. (2015). A systematic review of the criticalfactors for success of mobile learning in higher education(university students` perspective).

Journal of EducationalComputing Research, 52(2),257-276.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0735633115571928

AlTameemy, F. (2017). Mobilephones for teaching and learning: Implementation and students’ andteachers’ attitudes. Journalof Educational Technology Systems, 45(3),436-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0047239516659754

Brown, H., &amp Mbati, L. S.(2015). Mobile learning: Moving past the myths and embracing theopportunities. InternationalReview of Research in Open &amp Distance Learning,16(2),115-135.

Burden, K. &amp Kearney, M.(2016). Future scenarios for mobile science learning. Researchin ScienceEducation, 46(2),287-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9514-1

Cook, E. (2015). The future ofm-learning begins with baseline pedagogy. InternetLearning Journal,4(2), 25-36.

Dold, C. J. (2016). Rethinkingmobile learning in light of current theories and studies.

Journal of AcademicLibrarianship,42(6), 679-686.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2016.08.004

Kattayat, S., Josey, S., &ampAsha, J. V. (2017). Mobile learning apps in instruction and studentachievement. InternationalJournal of Interactive Mobile Technologies,11(1),143-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v11i1.6420

Li, X., &amp Yang, X. Y.(2016). Effects of learning styles and interest on the concentrationand achievement of students in mobile learning. Journal ofEducational Computing Research, 54(7), 922-945.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0735633116639953

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Marzouki, O. F., Idrissi, M.K., &amp Bennani, S. (2017). Effects of social constructivist mobilelearning environments on knowledge acquisition: A meta-analysis.InternationalJournal ofInteractive Mobile Technologies, 11(1),18-39.http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3991/ijim.v11i1.5982

Sung, Y., Chang, K., &ampLiu, T. (2016). The effects of integrating mobile devices withteaching and learning on students’ learning performance: Ameta-analysis and research synthesis. Computers&amp Education,94,252-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.008

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