ASummary of Marxist Criticism
Marxistsphilosophy tries to study the societal and economic groups from theeconomic, political and social point of observation (Goldstein, 348). Consequently, it explores the power of socio-economic whichcontinues to stems from the time when the human society wasestablished. And thus, it perceives the organization of people like afight within two classes. The classes include the bourgeoisie or theworking class oppressors and the proletariat or the oppressed. KarlMarx who lived between 1818 and 1883 together with Friedrich from1820 and 1895 developed this doctrine in the nineteenth Century. Thetwo Germans founded this theory of critical revolution by peoples’interaction from separate classes of socioeconomic (Goldstein, 348).
Marxistcriticism highlights the division of socio-economic existence amongthe people, which affect them more than ideologies of gender,ethnicity, and religion among others. Marxism suggests that there isno need for the existence of the social classes. And thus, it wouldtrigger movements that idealize that the struggling conditionsmobilize people to revolt against the unjust way of living. However,the society has not remained static, and Marx proposed that it hasevolved via four periods including capitalist (the last), feudal,ancient society and primitive communist (the first) (Goldstein, 349).The political progression that moved people from the feudalism to thepresent capitalist society made the bourgeoisie to rely on the wagedpeople or proletariat. And these people were often referred as theresponsible forces of sustaining the community. Marx hypothesizedthat when proceeds are used to create new factories other thanreinvesting to the workers, the workforce will become shoddier. Andthis will create problems in the normal economic life functioning. When such crises arise, the Marxists will revolute to remove thesystem of social classes.
Theliterature uses the above perception of Marxist theory to reflect onsocial groups as well as emerging as ideological issues response.Marxists suggest that all written tales demonstrate social worldswith something to learn about the inserted man in that particularliterature. Marxist criticism is used in research to makeindividuals comprehend what it mean through reading, and analyzingnumerous works. Marxists consider that writing work does not comefrom pure artistic endeavor or divine stimulation but the ideologicaland economic situations around its formation (Gross and Philip, 781). The Marxist literary theory was systematized in the 1920s after theRussian revolution which occurred in October of 1917. In 1918, GeorgLukacs became a member of the Communist Party and defined histheories of Marxist concerning literature and criticism in variousworks. Thus, it was most adopted principles of many works ofliterature of socialists and communists Russian (Goldstein, 350).Additionally, it influenced many writers from the west such as JoyceJames, Jean Paul, Claude McKay, and Richard Wright among others. Intheir works, they addressed most of the Marxist ideas such asjustices and racial inequalities. However, the communist revolutiondid not succeed due to lack of practical ideology (Gross and Philip,781). The works of Earle Birney and Mavis Gallant reflected theinapplicability of Marxists philosophy in the contemporary world dueto the ineffectiveness of a society that is socially responsible.
Inlatest years, literary analysis has extended to tackle thesignificance of political and social issues. Fredric Jameson andRaymond Williams are among the Marxist critics that have stretchedstudy area to capture policy and cultural aspects in their literatureinterpretation (Gross and Philip, 781). Incidentally, Michael Ryan inhis contemporary literary and cultural studies notes that Marxistcritics together with feminists have started researching on literallycriticism as a part of social sciences.
Goldstein,Philip. "Criticism and Ideology: A Study In Marxist LiteraryTheory (Review)". symploke14.1 (2013): 348-350. Web.
Gross,David S., and Philip Goldstein. "The Politics Of LiteraryTheory: An Introduction To Marxist Criticism". WorldLiterature Today65.4 (2015): 781. Web.