England’sIndustrial Revolution InThe Late 18th Century
Itis not a coincidence that the Industrial Revolution began in the late18th century in England, but based on facts and the literatureexplores various elements that made England to make a breakthrough inthe industrial revolution before spreading to other nations. Beloware some factors that highly contributed to industrial revolution.
Geographyand natural resources
Theavailability of natural resources and the geography of Britain led togreater extents of success in the industrial revolution in many ways.It is a country that is well surrounded by sea, and much landcrisscrossed by rivers. For this reason, its transport means gotenhanced. Hence they could trade with ease, and at the same time,availability of sea acted as a barrier whereby they could not getinvaded by enemies to disrupt on-going activities, and as a result,peace and stability existed. The fact that it is an island it gavethem an opportunity to develop techniques in marine technology thatnecessitated navigations (Szostak,Rick 123).The literature also indicates that there was presence of iron andother nonferrous metals together with coal which highly contributedto success through manufacturing of other goods for trade.
Atthe time of industrialization, Britain experience almost doubles itsagricultural productivity. It was at a time when there was theparliamentary enclosure of land, and as a result, there wasintroduction of new technologies in a farming system such as seeddrill accompanied by the introduction of new crops and livestock. Inconnection to this, Britain could obtain food that fed its people andin turn used the energy to increase their economic activities.Additionally, It was at a time when there were innovators such asJethro Tull who brought a lot of significance in farming for instanceimprovement in plough thus minimized expenses incurred earlier(Kirschenmann,Frederick 231).Following this aspect, the English agriculture when compared to othercountries had reached to higher levels of both land and laborproductivity.
Theliterature proves that demand side factors had an impact towardsindustrial revolution when combined by both the domestic and foreigninfluence. When the aggregate supply shifted from its normal curve,it resulted in the rise of aggregate demand. About market factors,there was an increased consumption of goods produced in Britain. Whenit happened, the consumer revolution made an impact, and it was atthis point when inventories came up, and as a result, they managed touse their experience human to undertake different operations leadingto mass production (Mantoux,Paul 119).The demand side factors got experienced when there were changes inhousehold behaviour during the 17th and 18th century. It enabled bothmen and women to work extra hard to uplift consumption levels, andthrough this process, they even became more industries and marketorientated individuals. The literature reveals that the Britainhousehold could make leisure trade regarding money since money andthere was the rise in market channels in the society which in thelong run resulted in demand of industrial goods industrialization.Concerning the political role played, the supply side factors found aconducive environment which led to agglomeration of economies andgave way to diffusion as people interacted with one another (Horn,Jeff 121).
Inthe late of 18th century, Britain was one of the countries in theworld with a unique and higher degree of openness among its people.It was at appointing where tourist and the immigrants could interactwhen they come in and also leave with no implications or disruption(Reinert,Sophus 48).Through the process of movement, the intellectuals in Britain tookadvantage and freely exchanged ideas with other colleges that benefitthem in industrial take up. In a short time, there was an expansionof trade along its coastal line hence economic development. Theycould export Cotton, irons and others manufactured goods across theseas which brought more income the British economy (Beverly,Lemire 76).
Institutionaland political factors
Inthe 18th century, Britain had a well organised political institutionwhich facilitated development and thriving of economy. It is a pointthat Britain experienced glorious revolution which they referred as“bloodless revolution” which had positive impacts because it ledto the adoption of bills of right which transformed politics and thuseconomy thrived to higher levels (Charles,Austin 46).The country marked a period where people lived in peace due topolitical stability. It, therefore, created a conducive environmentwhich limited King`s power through consolidation of parliament’smonarchy.
Modernscience, technology, and human capital
Therewas scientific revolution witnessed in the 18th century, and abroader scope, all disciplines in science had to reorganise towardsthe adoption of new techniques and principles which further modifiedits investigation methods. In the new approaches, they employed theuse of mathematical tools together with different experimentationinstead of barren metaphysical applied in other nations. Theyconceived the idea that they could use maths to the interpretuniverse which also explained natural phenomenon (ALLEN,Robert 386).Some scientist such as Francis Bacon had already mastered nature andresulted in empiricism that showed mutual relationship existingbetween scientific activities and technologies employed to producenew products.
Britainexperienced a sustained growth in its population which led to greatmen for expansion processes.Demograpy affects both the demand andsupply needs of a nation since expansion experienced in demographyresulted in more demand for goods and services (ALLEN,Robert 357).Following this perspective, there was economic growth hence moreinvestment and innovation took place. Additionally, the rise inpopulation made more workers available for industrial activities.
Tosum up, it is true that the vast social and economic changes had asignificant impact on the people of England whereby much developmenttook place that resulted in a massive production. The period gotmarked by hard work, and most people started expanding and workingoutside their homes. Following the vast changes, it, in turn,resulted in changes in lifestyles as England experienced migration ofpeople from the countryside to cities. It was a period ofbreakthrough that England enjoyed to develop its industries andexpand more in trade overseas
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