AnorexiaNervosa is an eating disorder that has been classified along withbulimia as psychiatric issues characterized by extremely interferedeating habits. The illness has been accelerated by the association ofbeauty with thinness, which has prompted many young women to starvethemselves so they can attain the expected standards. The issue hascontinued for many years with the numbers of those suffering from thedisorder remaining high, especially in most western countries (Kaplan& Sadock, 1988). In fact, various management systems that havebeen practiced before have failed to take any permanent effect. Thedisorder has in severe cases led to the death of some victims,particularly those who have not received any care or resistedmanagement of the condition. The current paper looks at anorexianervosa and its management.
Firstof all, anorexia, as an eating disorder is characterized by theresistance to eat healthy amounts of food, coupled with the fears ofgaining any weight. As a result, those suffering from the disorderloose up to 85% of their ideal body weight that, therefore, has itclassified as a mental condition because any fluctuations in bodyweight result in drastic measures by the patients trying to remainsmall (Fogarty & Ramjan, 2016). The disease has made it amongstthe highest class of mental illnesses that cause death, with very fewpatients seeking medical help for their condition.
Ontop of that, anorexia nervosa has been associated with eatingdisturbance that involves lack of interest in feeding and worry aboutthe aversive effects of food (American Psychiatrist Association,2014). In fact, most patients who have been rushed to hospitalscomplain of several body functions shutting down. It makes thecondition clear to those close to them that would have otherwise goneunnoticed. In most cases, therefore, patients who seek help areusually at the end of the illness,whichmeans they need critical care.
Question2: Management of
Asa result of the difficulties experienced in diagnosing and managinganorexia, there have been newer strategies focused on treating thedeeper mental issue that influences food choices. Detailed medicalcharts of the patients are often required upon their admission intohealth centers, particularly those who are brought in as emergencycases and have to be hospitalized for the failing vitals to bemanaged. In that case, to address the diverse issues that thepatients face, physicians have been advised to ensure that they relyon several approaches that range from nutritional response based onbiology to addressing the deeper mental-based issues that influencethe thoughts about weight (Golan, 2013).
Moreover,with the need to address all the comprehensive issues at the sametime, the collaborative approach has been introduced. It strives tobring together several specialists from mental health, nutritionists,and medical specialists to ensure not only full recovery but alsonarrowed chances of relapsing. According to Golan (2013), the carecenter in the study has used this response system for their eatingdisorder patients. The author notes its effectiveness by highlightinghow a majority of their patients, 5% of those who had anorexia, hadfully recovered or improved by the end of their treatment period.Their patients were mainly those who were under critical conditionsand had failed to respond to other forms of treatment (Golan, 2013).
Question3: Comprehensive Initial Treatment Plan
Thatbeing said, a patient suffering from anorexia nervosa showspersistence in the failure to meet the nutritional levels needed inthe body. In this case, there is usually notable weight loss or asituation where one does not attain the expected weight. Moreover,one shows increased signs of nutritional deficiency. Therefore,health professionals ought to consider both behavioral andpsychological aspects in a patient before recommending medications(American Psychiatrist Association, 2014). The restrictive behavioris either based on binge eating or eliminating various foods such asfats.
Oncediagnosed, treatment follows several steps after eradicating the needfor hospitalization, especially with those brought in with extremesof the disorder. The treatment steps aim to restore a patient tonormal weight, treat health complications, motivate patient towardsattaining a healthy weight, educate on healthy eating, removemisguided beliefs and attitudes, treat psychotic conditions, and gainsupport from family (Kaplan& Sadock, 1988).All these approaches aim at ensuring that there is no chance ofrelapse after treatment.
Primaryprevention approaches are usually aimed at avoiding the onset orgrowth of anorexia. The methods are focused on improvement of theoverall health and psychological development of an individual. One ofthe best primary approaches would be to enhance media literacy. Itwill play a role in offering knowledge on any unrealistic principlesof beauty to enable individuals learn how to analyze messages andlower the risk of anorexia. Care of people suffering from anorexiacan also involve nutritional rehabilitation aimed at those withextreme weight loss to restore it, normalize eating choices, ensurethat they perceive hunger and satisfaction in the expected normalway, and treat malnutrition. The step of care considers age, weight,and health status of patients to ensure that they receive adequatemedical care suitable for their body needs.
Secondaryprevention approaches are aimed at decreasing the severity as well asthe time that anorexia takes in an individual. Two of the mostcritical methods of secondary treatment would involve early detectionand treatment of the illness. Furthermore, medicated treatments arealso part of the care, especially for those in extreme conditions, tohelp with weight gain through the use of approved weight gainsupplements and hormones that safely help regain some healthy bodyweight. The medications should, however, be administered based on thehealth records of the patients to ensure that they do not react tocause more harm and relapse after treatment.
Tertiaryprevention methods play a part in resolving anorexia in people whohave had it for some time. In most cases, the procedures aim at thereduction of the effect that anorexia has on an individual’s life.Two of the most prominent methods under this category would includerehabilitation and relapse avoidance. In this case, psychologicalinterventions are included where children and adolescents usefamily-based intercessions that are most effective when blame-free inensuring the compulsive eating habits are eliminated (Golan, 2013).The care plan is also good for the long-term as patients continue tointeract with their families on a healthy ground. It also continuesafter the restoration of body weight to help with increasing theircognitive relation with themselves and their views of development,especially those related to body. The step aims at ensuring thatthere is a minimal recession.
Safetyof the patient suffering from anorexia nervosa ought to beconsidered. In this case, any drugs prescribed or administered shouldbe scrutinized to ensure that they have no harmful effects on apatient. Therefore, tests should be carried out on a patient toensure that they are safe when using any drugs given to them.Moreover, any activities that help lower the risks of the illnessshould be done in a way that considers the welfare of an individual(Golan, 2013). Otherwise the safety issues can end up compromisingthe benefits of any intervention.
Itought to be noted that genes play a huge part in eating disorders. Infact, relatives coming from families of people who suffer fromanorexia nervosa have a high tendency of having the illness. That isowing to the fact that genes are heritable and can spread in a familydue to nurturing or exposure. Therefore, in handling the illness, itis vital to understand a patient’s history including the family’sbackground to ensure that the correct procedures of treatment areadopted (Golan, 2013).
Allin all, anorexia nervosa has become rampant among young people aroundthe world. In this case, with the collaborative approach andintegration of some plans, the care plan is expected to ensureminimal relapse and total recovery for all patients. The treatment ofanorexia requires identification of any restrictive behaviors in apatient.
AmericanPsychiatrist Association (2014). Diagnostic and statistical manual ofmental disorders (DSM-5), 5thEd. Retrieved fromhttps://psicovalero.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/dsm-v-manual-diagnc3b3stico-y-estadc3adstico-de-los-trastornos-mentales.pdf
Fogarty,S., & Ramjan, L. M. (2016). Factorsimpacting treatment and recovery in : qualitativefindings from an online questionnaire. Journalof Eating Disorders, 4(1),18. Retrieved fromhttps://jeatdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40337-016-0107-1
Golan,M. (2013). The journey from opposition to recovery from eatingdisorders: Multidisciplinary model integrating narrative counselingand motivational interviewing in traditional approaches. Journalof Eating Disorders, 1(1),19.Retrieved fromhttps://jeatdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2050-2974-1-19
Kaplan,H. I., & Sadock, B. J. (1988). Synopsisof psychiatry: Behavioral sciences clinical psychiatry.New York, NY: Williams & Wilkins Co. Retrieved fromhttps://books.google.co.ke/books?id=u-ohbTtxCeYC&pg=PA76&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=4#v=onepage&q&f=false