ArgumentativeDiscussion on Abortion
ArgumentativeDiscussion on Abortion
Different groupsof people have divergent views on whether abortion should be allowedor not. The group objecting to abortion is referred to as pro-life.In other words, the group subscribes to the doctrine of the sanctityof life (Mikołajczak & Bilewicz, 2015). In the views of thepro-lifers, abortion is evil because it constitutes murder of theunborn child. On the other hand, the group clamoring for abortion tobe allowed is referred to as pro-choice. The substantive argumentraised by the pro-choice is the need to give women freedoms overtheir bodies. In other words, the government should not police bodiesof the women. Mostly, abortion is legal in liberal democracies suchas North America and Europe (Żuradzki, 2014). Conservativessocieties in Latin America, Africa, and Asia remain repulsive to theidea of legal abortions. The debate about legalizing abortion centerson the need to expand women freedoms. The paper will give the prosand cons of allowing abortion in the society.
The societydetests murder. People who commit murder are punished. According tothe views of the pro-lifers, abortion is no less than murder.Therefore, individuals who commit abortion should face the same fateas the murderers (Vecera, 2014). The pro-choice counter the argumentin two ways. The first case fronted by the pro-choice is that theunborn cannot be considered a person until it is delivered. In anycase, until delivery is successful the child can still be lostthrough miscarriages and stillbirth. Therefore, the fetus is just aformless mass of cells. Women give reasons why they want toterminate a pregnancy (Mikołajczak & Bilewicz, 2015). Suchreasons may include the need to pursue career goals among others. Ajust and equal society gives every citizen a fair chance to succeedin life. Therefore, denying the women the right to undergo abortionconstitutes limiting their life dreams and goals.
The pro-lifersuse the bill of rights to illustrate why abortion should not beallowed. The freedoms under the rights charter are inalienable. Anexample is the right to life. If the fetus is considered a person,then it enjoys the privileges under the charter (Mikołajczak &Bilewicz, 2015). However, the pro-choice do not consider the fetus aperson. Therefore, the fetus enjoys no freedoms guaranteed under therights charter. Under the constitution, one becomes a citizen of acountry through birth or naturalization (Vecera, 2014). Only citizensof a country enjoy the freedoms contained in the rights charter. Anunborn child is not considered a citizen of any country. Therefore,the fetus does not enjoy any rights guaranteed by the constitution.
Both thepro-lifers and pro-choice agrees that there are some instances whenabortion should be allowed (Mikołajczak & Bilewicz, 2015). Forexample, if the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother, it wouldbe moral to save the mother or the child. The point of disagreementis whether abortion should be allowed when there is no apparentthreat to the mother or the fetus (Duffy, 2015). According topro-lifers, abortion is outright murder if there is no danger to themother or the child.
According to views advanced by the pro-choice groups, the ninemonths a woman carries a pregnancy is not an easy period. The womanexperiences both physical and emotional discomfort. If the woman isnot ready to host the child in their womb, nobody should force them.The possibility of ending the pregnancy should be open (Duffy, 2015).The point is illustrated more clearly in the case of rape. The womandid not wish to be raped or to become pregnant. In such a situation,she should be allowed access to safe abortion. Denying her abortionwill be subjecting her to double jeopardy.
Scientists saythe fetus start developing the face, arms, and legs only after thetenth week. The face, legs, and arms are all human features. Anothercharacteristic that distinguishes humans from other animals is theconsciousness (Żuradzki, 2014). Scientist intimate that the fetuslacks consciousness. Therefore, they cannot be considered as humans.According to pro-choice, abortion in the early months of thepregnancy when the fetus has not developed human-like features shouldbe legal. In other words, before the tenth week, the fetus is just aformless mass of cells. Some people within the pro-lifers group holda similar view. During the early days of pregnancy, abortion shouldbe allowed (Eemeren, Grootendorst, Johnson, Plantin et.al, 2013).  The main undoing in the debate is the extreme positions held by somehardliners within the pro-lifers and pro-choice. Some pro-lifersconclude that abortion should be illegal at any stage of thepregnancy. On the other hand, some pro-choice propose it should belegal to undertake abortion at any stage of gestation even a week tothe delivery (Żuradzki, 2014). If common sense was to prevail thenabortion in the early days may be allowed and denied in the latestage of pregnancy.
Another sticking issue on the debate about legalizing abortion isthe stage at which life begins. According to clergies, life begins atthe conception (Mikołajczak & Bilewicz, 2015). The moment thesperm combines with the ovum. Scientists have established that untilthe last three months of pregnancy the unborn child remains abiological entity, otherwise referred to as an embryo. Solving thequestion of when the life starts may help conclude the debate overabortion. If the answer is agreeable to both sides, then it can beclearly defined in the law at what stage abortion is allowed and whennot. The law on abortion is vague (Eemeren, Grootendorst, Johnson,Plantin et.al, 2013). Consequently, each state develops its lawsdefining circumstances under which abortion can be allowed.Therefore, even though abortion is legal in the United States, lawsdiffer from one state to another.
Another emergingissue is what would happen if the mother carries the pregnancy toterm, delivers safely and does not want to keep the baby? Optionsexist that the mother can take. For example, she can offer the childto be adopted (Duffy, 2015). In any case, some couples do not havekids but wish to have one. Therefore, instead of aborting, themother should deliver the baby and offer it for adoption.
Methods ofpreventing pregnancy exist. Even in the case of rape, proper medicalinterventions can avoid the victim becoming pregnant. In the event ofthe consensual intercourse, the woman was well aware of thepossibilities of becoming pregnant. Equally, she was conscious of themethods that could prevent it. Nevertheless, for some reasons, sheignored all the danger zones (Duffy, 2015). Therefore, she should notblame the unborn child for her actions but should takeresponsibility. Essentially, the pro-lifers intimate that if womenwant full control over their body, they should be responsible fortheir actions too (Vecera, 2014). For example, if they do not want tobecome pregnant, they should just abstain or use contraceptives.
According tostudies, a majority of those undertaking abortions are young womenand barely understands the impacts of their actions. The young andinexperienced women end regretting later in life. Primarily, thegirls just want to escape the nightmare of being a teen or youngmother (Vecera, 2014). Therefore, the focus should not be onlegalizing abortion but helping the young women support and raisetheir kids. Such steps will reduce the psychological pain and stressthat women experience after undertaking abortion.
Notably,abortion can reduce the chances of a woman becoming pregnant againand increase the risks of ectopic pregnancy (Mikołajczak &Bilewicz, 2015). Usually, abortion increases the risks to the healthand mental wellbeing of the mother. Therefore, it should not belegalized.
Important tonote, countries that criminalize abortion are not free from the vice.In such countries, crude methods are used to perform an abortion. Themethods increase the risks to the life of the mother and the child(Vecera, 2014). Therefore, legalizing abortion ensures that womenhave access to health facilities and trained physicians (increasedsafety).
In conclusion,the debate over legalization of the abortion remains inconclusive. ALarge part of the population believes abortion is a form of murder.On the other hand, the people supporting abortion highlight thefreedoms of the women to make choices over their bodies. The stickingpoints in the deliberations are on at what point life begins. Gettingthe answer to the question may help define at what stage of pregnancyabortion should be legalized. Notably, methods of preventingpregnancy exists, it can be concluded that those who become pregnantdo so by choice. Therefore, they should not blame anyone whenabortion is denied. Another issue is the long-term well-being of thewomen who undergo an abortion. Most of them experience stress andpsychological pain later in life. Abortion may have adverse impactson the health and mental wellbeing of the mother. Therefore, abortionshould not be legalized.
Duffy, C. (2015). Compass| States’ Rights vs. Women’s Rights:The Populist Argumentative Frame in Anti-AbortionRhetoric. International Journal of Communication.
Mikołajczak, M., & Bilewicz, M. (2015). Fetus or child?Abortion discourse and attributions of humanness. BritishJournal of Social Psychology.
Van Eemeren, F. H., Grootendorst, R., Johnson, R. H., Plantin, C., &Willard, C. A. (2013). Fundamentals of argumentation theory:A handbook of historical backgrounds and contemporary developments.Routledge.
Vecera, V. (2014). The Supreme Court and the Social Conception ofAbortion. Law & Society Review.
Żuradzki, T. (2014). Moral uncertainty in bioethicalargumentation: a new understanding of the pro-life view on earlyhuman embryos. Theoretical medicine and bioethics.