Prompt1: History of Italian Baroque
Artis among the most significant aspects of human history. It primarilyentails the study of art objects in their stylistic contexts as wellas historical development. The term ‘art history’ consists ofseveral approaches to studying the visual arts works ofarchitecture, and art. In this paper, the discussion is about theItalian baroque it contains the concept of Italian baroque, aims andcharacteristics of Italian baroque, the relation of Italian arts tothe historical and cultural conditions in which it developed and someof the artists who contributed to the Italian artwork.
TheItalian baroque art refers to the period in Italy especially in thelate 16thcentury and early 18thcentury when painting, drawing, and sculpture was used to expressemotions, feelings, and ideas. The Italian baroque started during thelate 16thcentury and ended in the early 18thcentury. During this period, the Protestant churches led by MartinLuther started a Protestant Reformation to oppose the Roman Catholic(Gillgren et al. 4). Because of this, the artists who remained in theRoman Catholic started the artwork to show their intelligence andcreativity of mind to respond to the Protestant Reformation in whatis refers to as the Counter Reformation. Both the Protestants and theRoman Catholic revealed their creativity through painting anddifferent forms of art.
Theartists wanted to create drama, create tension and even exaggeratemotions. The artists wanted to communicate religious themes andtenets in an emotional way. Arts inspire others some of the artworkwas motivating and encouraging as they show some lifetime events(Gillgren et al. 4). In most cases, artworks were at the entrance ofplaces the main reason was to impress the visitors and project powerand authority clearly.
Justas the other artwork has characteristics, some of the followingcharacteristics also characterized the Italian art history. First, ithad sensuousness. This is the ability of the art to appeal to thesenses (Riegl et al. 46). Most of the artworks especially thedecorations at the entrances had this value, with the main aim ofgiving a better impression to the visitors or the people who aregoing through the entrance. The arts with this quality were at theentrance of the churches or chapels. Secondly, arts depicted a strongemotional content to the viewers. Being that the Italian art spannedduring the time when there were Protestant Reforms andCounter-Reforms, the artists were trying to make some artwork thatrevealed their emotions towards a given reformation (Gillgren et al.5). The artists in the Roman Catholic Church were creating arts toshow their unity. This was to encounter the artwork of the protestantartist, who viewed the Catholic religion in a negative religion.
Thirdly,the artwork constitutes of naturalism and realism. Some the artisticrepresentations proved to be realistic in the information that theywere showing. This was to reject some of the impractical visionary,which was not real (Gillgren et al. 5). These artistic works showedthe naturalism in life by showing the exact things that tend tohappen in real life situation. With the kind of events, which werehappening in the late 16thcentury to early 18thcentury, the artistic representation tried to bring out the realevents. Fourthly, classicism and idealism formed part of the Italianartwork. In 1560-1612, an Italian artist known as Annibale Carracci(Riegl et al. 97), he based his work on the classical thoughts torepresent the naturalism based on classical models to reveal theeveryday truth. This created harmony in living as the people couldsee the truth and leave in peace, love, and harmony with others.Lastly, the Italian artwork constituted of baroque architecture.Baroque architects started due to political and religious unrest(Riegl et al. 46). The Protestants doubted the ethical codes of theRoman Catholic, and they used the baroque architects to spread thecampaign, the Baroque was used mostly by the protestant reforms tospread propaganda against the Roman Catholic. The Catholic monarchsused the architects to support their rules, re-inspire theirfollowers and to warn them against the Protestantism as they counterattack the Protestants and respond to the allegations.
Manyartists contributed massively to the Italian artwork, some of theartists were Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (1609 – 1664). The keyelement in his work was etching, biblical genre painting and use ofmonotype (Riegl et al. 48). Drawers like Rubens, Bernini, and Vaninfluenced him. Use of animal drawings formed basic characteristic ofhis work his work depicted the values in religion. He earned a lotfrom his open method of and techniques of the foreign artist. Themost significant artistic representation was Noahleading the animals into theark(1655, national Gallery, Washington DC.)
Thesecond artist was Michelangelo Caravaggio (1573 – 1610). Religiouspainting formed the key element of his artistic representation (Rieglet al. 48). His painting showed a solid structure in innkeepers andgamblers. The religious unrest motivated him towards the naturalism,mannerism and classicism style. He also used courtesan, workers, andpeasants as models to represent his biblical drawings. His workdepicted the cultural values as most of his work was about biblicaldrawing (Riegl, Alois, Andrew & Arnold, 97). Caravaggio wasdifferent from other artists because, he was a violent man with bothcriminal, assault and murder cases. Thecalling of the Saint Matthew (1600)forms one of his significant works.
Thethird artist, who contributed towards the Italian baroque, was Pietroda Cortona who did his work in the year 1596 to 1669 (Gillgren et al.5). The baroque architects formed the key element of his work becausehe majorly contributed the Catholic Counter-Reformation campaign inVatican. Foreshortening exemplifies work perfectly, being that he wasthe most talented architect he became unique among other artists(Bohn et al. 33). However, he faced some academic demoralization fromAndrea Sacchi (1599 – 1661), who believed that classical priorityrequired the fewest composition and restriction of the number offigures. He sacrifices himself to work for the rich and the powerful.The immortal work of the Apotheosis of St. Ignatius (1688 – 1690) wasone of his significant works.
Inconclusion, the history of Italian baroque art emerged due to thepolitical and religious uncertainties this provoked the artists toexpress their opinions through painting and drawing, the works, theartists used their creativity to raise some of the political,cultural or economic problems in the society. The artistic work was asource of income to the artists, the contracts they were able toraise some income.
Bohn,Babette, and James M. Saslow. ACompanion to Renaissance and Baroque Art.Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. Internet resource.
Riegl,Alois, Andrew Hopkins, Arnold A. Witte, and Alina A. Payne. TheOrigins of Baroque Art in Rome.Los Angeles, Calif: Getty Research Institute, 2010. Print.
Gillgren,Peter, and Mårten Snickare. Performativityand Performance in Baroque Rome.Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2012. Print.