Article Critique

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ARTICLE CRITIQUE 6

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According to Allan, Carey &amp Foltz 1983, if we are to ascertainthe definition to critical thinking, we must understand that it isnot the people that describe thinking, but the thinking that explainsus (Diane, 2014). Critical thinking denotes the application ofcognitive strategies or skills that offer a probability of therequired outcome. The critical thinking notion is implemented todefine thinking as goal-directed, purposeful, and reasoned. If suchthinker is applying skills that are effective and thoughtful for thespecific type and context of a task of thinking, it is the sort ofthinking tangled in resolving problems, framing inferences, devisinglikelihoods, as well as creating decisions.

The want for one to critically think has not changed regardless oftechnology changes in the previous years. Most of the information isprejudiced in ways of detection due to the ease to advancedinformation than one can conceivably use, it is at for such reasonRussell offers an equation as to best define critical thinking. Hedefines it as the categorization or evaluation process in terms ofcertain previously accepted standards that appear to engage attitude,an understanding of the facts, and some skills of thinking (Diane,2014).

Summary of Critical Thinking Definition

Critical Thinking = Skills of Thinking + Knowledge + Attitude

It is important for critical thinking to accompany such advancesbecause cognitive abilities might be cultured from such instructionexplicitly planned to impart skills. The skills are then transferredto actual settings of the world if practiced in the multipleenvironments. The development of both skills of perilous thinking,disposition, and attitude are important but useful when appliedrespectively. Therefore, a critical philosopher’s attitude must bevalued and cultivated. This critical thinking disposition or attitudeentails the readiness to be flexible, plan, and persistence the willto accept their errors and adjust their mind where evidence backs amodification in consensus-pursuit, awareness, and position.Self-observation of own processes of thought is a way people canadvance the ways they think because they possess small consciouscognizance of the way they think (Diane, 2014). It is essential forpeople to reflect on thinking as possessing two tools.

It is important for critical thinking to accompany such advancesbecause people’s rationality has boundaries or limits. Individualsare satisfiers because they will never possess complete data or evenknow their decisions’ consequence with confidence. This denotesthat in a majority of circumstances, people make decisions that aredecent. People’s emotions interrelate with ways they think andmight lead them to reach decisions not morally rational. People arefeeling and thinking beings whose emotional thinking aspects cannever be overlooked. Multiple ecological cues influenced how and whatpeople think cues people are never aware of and find difficult totrust as affecting their judgments (Diane, 2014). Individuals oftenreport that their thinking occasionally relies on sentence schemesand graphic imagery, thus, the individual dissimilarities anddifferences in task especially in the application of thought modes.

Reasoning (Drawing Conclusions That Are Deductive and Valid)

The application of statements or premises that people accept as aright to develop valid inferences is termed as deductive thinking.People never approach problems of reasoning according to formalreasoning laws. Instead of ascertaining if the conclusion reasonablydevelops from premises as stated, there is an inclination to modifypremises in accordance with a person’s own philosophies and so thedecision on if such conclusion tails from the improved statements.

In such linear collations, people will use grounds to reachconclusions on ordered dealings. A noble strategy for resolvinglinear collations entails using a three-dimensional representationwhere the matters are organized in a systematic manner because it notcommon to never confuse validity with truth. Validity is theunconnected to the content type of a dispute. Therefore, a conclusionis valid if it essentially develops from premises (Diane, 2014).Individual beliefs regularly prejudice people’s ability to definevalidity that even the conclusions they believe as true are likely tobe referred more valid than the conclusion they never believe astrue.

Arguments Analysis

Every argument is an endeavor to persuade the listener or reader thata certain conclusion is factually based on every reason offered.Every argument should possess at minimum a reason (premise),assumptions, counterarguments, qualifiers and a conclusion. Arguments need structures diagrammed and identifiable. Soundarguments always meet the three-set criteria: the reason isconsistent and acceptable the reason (by staying applicable to theconclusion) offers support to the conclusion and is adequatelyrobust, and the argument’s missing components are alwaysconsidered. So, in analyzing an argument’s strength, the sum ofsupport every reason offers to this conclusion is evaluated along thenegative counterarguments’ effects (Diane, 2014). Omittedcomponents are explicit and so considered alongside the componentsstated.

An extensive bias exists in assigning greater significance toexplanations that back a conclusion people favor than the premises(reason) that are counter to the conclusion people approve. Such biasis lessened by only listing counterarguments and reasons as well asconsciously determining how intensely people run or support thecounter to such conclusion (Diane, 2014). A serious part of theexamination the arguments is the deliberation of misleadingpronouncements and misplaced portions.

Conclusion

Development of skills of critical thinking needs specific training,rehearsal in a diversity of feedback, contexts, and the time toprogress. When deciding on the suitability of a reason (premise), itis customarily necessary to evaluate the reliability of information’ssource because important dissimilarities between specialists for factissues and value issues exist. People’s beliefs are easily alteredwith unsound and sound reasoning thus the need to be aware of anyefforts to influence your views with such technologies and carelessreasoning practices.

References

Diane, F. (2014), Thought and knowledge – an introduction tocritical thinking (5th edition),Psychology Press, 30(4),1-634,https://ia801306.us.archive.org/12/items/Thought_and_Knowledge_An_Introduction_to_Critical_Thinking_by_Diane_F._Halpern/Thought_and_Knowledge_An_Introduction_to_Critical_Thinking_by_Diane_F._Halpern.pdf

Article Critique

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ARTICLE CRITIQUE 1

Critiquing an article involves identifying, evaluating, andresponding to the ideas of the article’s author, both negativelyand positively. The article critiqued in this paper is “Examiningthe Influence of Technology and Project-Supported Thinking Journey onAchievement,” by Baran Medine and Maskan Abdulkadir. Thearticle is a study intended to investigate the effect of projectsupported thinking journey and technology on the accomplishment ofeleventh-grade high school learners in the electricity subject. Thispaper summarizes the main points of each section of the article –purpose or hypotheses, methods, analysis, and results. It also givesa critique and reflection of the article – what was good about thisresearch, what could be done to make this research better, andsuggestions for future study.

Purpose of the Study

The aim of the research was to study the effect of the “Technologyand Project-Supported Thinking Journey” method on eleventh-gradehigh school pupils’ success in a science class.

Sample

The research was carried out in Diyarbakir during the spring term ofthe 2009-2010 academic year. Participants included sixty-eightstudents from two-eleventh grade science courses, each havingthirty-four students. Of the experimental group participants, 41.2percent were male, and 58.8 percent were female. The number of femaleand male students in the control experiment was the same [ CITATION Bar13 l 1033 ].

Methods and Procedures

The researchers came up with a test known as “ElectricityAchievement Test” to evaluate the knowledge of the students onsubjects related to electricity. The test was evaluated to find outif it was by Bloom’s taxonomy. It consisted of thirtymultiple-choice questions, of which six were directed to get data onthe student’s knowledge, five were focused to collect data on theircomprehension, seventeen were geared to gather information on theirapplication, and eleven were aimed at metacognition level. Theresearchers also gave the students semi-structured interview forms toget their views regarding the application process as well as thestudy’s applicability. The researchers also conducted interviewsand recorded them [ CITATION Bar13 l 1033 ].

Results and Discussion

The results of the research indicated that the mean scores of bothcontrol and experimental groups’ Electricity Achievement pretestbefore the experimental process were almost equal. That was onvarious sub-dimensions of Bloom’s taxonomy, for example,application, metacognition, and knowledge. The mean scores were alsoon the overall scores. The results showed that the experimental groupachieved better results that the control group following theapplications on every step of Bloom’s taxonomy [ CITATION Bar13 l 1033 ].

The results obtained from the interviews that were held with thestudents in the experimental group were grouped into three themes andcategories. The researchers examined the content of these themes andfound out that the students appreciated the process however, someexperienced difficulties. The majority of them put forward that theyperceived Physics as a quite hard course though, their perceptionchanged after the applications were conducted and their attitudetowards the subject became positive. They found “Technology andProject-Supported Thinking Journey” method beneficial and that itimproved their cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills. Besidesthey reported that the knowledge they obtained was permanent. Thesefindings show that the method, “Technology and Project-SupportedThinking Journey,” was more beneficial than the traditional methodsthat were teacher-centered [ CITATION Bar13 l 1033 ].

The researchers used both qualitative and quantitative researchmethods to analyze the results. In the qualitative analysis, thepost-test and pre-test research designs were used for bothexperimental and control groups. They statistically examined thedifference between the mean scores of the post-test and pre-test. Forthis reason, they used the t-test for independent and dependentgroups present in SPSS 15.0. In the quantitative analysis, theresearchers used semi-structured interviews to collect data from theparticipants of the research. They then used content analysis method,which involved the formation of theoretical themes as well assub-themes. Based on the findings of the study, it could be right toconclude that the control and experimental groups achieved similarresults in advance of the experimental process. That is consideredsignificant for an experimental research to yield healthy outcomes(Baran &amp Abdulkadir, 2013).

Critique of the Article

There are various good things about this research. It has awell-stated objective: To study the effect of the “Technology andProject-Supported Thinking Journey” method on eleventh-grade highschool pupils’ success in a science class. Its methodology isappropriate to the aim of the research. Since the purpose of theresearch was into the perceptions of the students, the researcherused qualitative methods to obtain results, for instance, asemi-structured interview [ CITATION Gue13 l 1033 ]. The researchersdefined the research population – sixty-eight eleventh-gradestudents in a science class in Diyarbakır. The research wasconducted in an unbiased manner since the researcher never influencedthe results of the study by any means. Although the study lacks adetailed literature review, the authors have mentioned some studiesthat were conducted in the past to determine the impact of “ThinkingJourney” on students’ learning. The findings of these previousstudies are necessary for reference purposes. The researchers usedboth qualitative and quantitative research methods to analyze theresults obtained from the survey. That made it easier to determinewhether the objective of the study was achieved or not [ CITATION Ben16 l 1033 ].Their analysis shows that the “Technology and Project-SupportedThinking Journey” method had a positive impact on the success ofthe students. The study has recommendations that are likely toimprove the effectiveness of the “Technology and Project-SupportedThinking Journey” method when implemented.

Despite the fact that the research was well carried out, there aresome issues that have to be considered to make it better. Theresearch lacks a research question so in future the researcher shouldclearly define the research problem and develop a research question.After identifying the problem, the researcher should review theliterature that is related to the research problem to get moreinformation about the topic under investigation. A literature reviewgives basic knowledge about the studies that have been carried out inthe past, how they were conducted, and the deductions in the problemarea (Creswell, 2014). After reviewing the literature, researchersshould clarify the research problem and narrow down the scope of theresearch. The knowledge the literature review gives is useful toguide the researcher to define and narrow the research project.

Social Application of Findings and Personal Reflection

“Technology and Project-Supported Thinking Journey” method can bebeneficial to students in the current educational system if it usedcarried out with technology-supported applications from time to time.That would really improve their cognitive, psychomotor, and affectiveskills [ CITATION Bar13 l 1033 ].

References

Baran, M., &amp Abdulkadir, M. (2013). Examining The Influence Of Technology and Project-Supported Thinking Journey on Achievement. Turkish Online Journal Of Educational Technology, 12(2), 122-130.

Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis. NursingPlus Open, 8-14.

Creswell, J. (2014). Research Design : Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Lincoln: University of Nebraska.

Guest, G., Namey, E. E., &amp Mitchell, M. L. (2013). Collecting Qualitative Data: A Field Manual for Applied Research. London: Sage.

Article Critique

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ArticleCritique

Thearticle “Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother” by Amy Chua talks ofthe struggles parents go through while raising their children. AmyChua is an American lawyer and author with high expertise in law,ethnic conflict, and globalization. I believe her purpose whilewriting the article was to show that parents, mainly in America,should assume the strength in their children, not the weakness (Chua,2011, p.305).Parents need to know that when they ask for more from their children,they will not just rise up to the challenge, but also thrive.

AmyChua is also trying to show that there is no specific way to becominga good parent. According to Chua, all parents want what is the bestfor their children. They also want their children to be happy andindependent (Chua,2011, p.309).She does well in showing that different cultures present parents withdifferent ideas of parenting, and the best thing to do is toencourage parents to learn from each other.

Inanother article, “Anatomy of a Rumor: It Flies on Fear,” DanielGoleman seeks to address the working of a rumor and better ways ofcontrolling it. Goleman is an internationally recognized psychologistand science journalist. As a science journalist, he reported for TheNew York Timesfor several years. Goleman has also written more than ten books,mainly on self-deception, creativity, social learning, andtransparency. On my view, the purpose of the article &quotAnatomy ofa Rumor: It Flies on Fear&quot is to show the public that spread ofrumors is dangerous as it creates anxiety, which leads to deaths,chaos, and destruction of businesses.

Accordingto Goleman, rumors thrive because of their ability to createanxieties, which make them spread and mutate to fit even in newsituations (Goleman,1991, p.487).The article insists that rumor leads to racial tensions, riots, andcollapse of businesses, making the need for effective ways to defeatrumors more apparent. The article also outlines on the best steps tofollow in combating a damaging rumor. One is to be alert in case offurther news of the rumor (Goleman,1991, p.491).Other steps include evaluating the rumor, followed by planning acounterattack, and finally launching the counterattack. Goleman getsa lot of support from fellow psychologists such as Dr. Allan Kimmel,Dr. Koenig, and Dr. Rosnow. The article, however, misses somearguments. Goleman only focuses on the negative side of rumors,leaving its advantages. In conclusion, it is also clear from theGoleman’s article that rumors create anxieties, which help themspread and mutate. It is, therefore, essential that people avoidspreading rumors to eliminate racial tensions, chaos, and deaths.

References

Chua,A. (2011).&nbspBattlehymn of the tiger mother.Bloomsbury Publishing.

Goleman,D. (1991). Anatomy of a rumor: It flies on fear.&nbspTheNew York Times,C1.