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Theglobal economy is a crucial issue in the current epoch. The stiffeconomic competition on the market forces many policy makers todiverge their attention towards strategies that can be used to alterthe fate of their respective nations. Over the years, the growth ofdifferent countries across the world has been assessed based on theirlevels of economic expansion over particular periods. Just tomention, dynamics such as financial policies, financial management,the effectiveness of certain economic laws, and the implementation ofthe proposed strategies can be used to determine the direction of anation. Taxation rules are also very fundamental because they affectthe stretch of the growth a country in various ways. For instance,the authoritative bodies can come up with taxation laws that directlyaffect the operations of particular organizations. The banks andother financial organizations fall victims of these strategies inmany occasions. On the other side, the citizens of a country,especially those who pay the taxes can feel the pinch if theimplemented laws affect their earnings in a negative way.Nevertheless, the masses ought to understand that in as much as thesepolicies might appear to be discriminating, the fact that they areuplifted to stabilize the economy of their respective countriesshould give them the driving force to cling to them.

of the Article

Thearticle highlights the primary causes of the economic crisis thataffect diverse nations. The authors pinpoint how taxation policiescan either uplift the endeavors of both the involved masses and theactivities of the major organizations within the affected areas. Itgoes without being mentioned that the main objective of the writersrevolves around the revelation of financial reformations which can beused to alter the direction of the global economy in a positive way.Any scholar can argue that the future generation might be affecteddirectly or indirectly by specific taxation and other financial rulesthat are put in place. Therefore, the authors mobilizes the policymakers to ensure that they prioritize the development of theirnations rather than hoisting laws that benefit the few within theirareas of govern.

Accordingto the article, the proposed and enacted taxation laws which pop upin certain countries are normally shaped through positive desires ofthe involved taxations (Shackelfordet al. 2010).It is depicted that these laws mainly punish those who might havebeen involved either openly or ultimately in causing the detectedmilestones. The writers therefore direct their attention inexplaining the justification of the common special taxes that mainlyaffect financial institutions. Furthermore, they try to assess theeffects of these taxes in line with how they boost the economies ofthe nations which embrace them. More focus is put on the followingbonus taxes, financial contract taxes, and taxes on organizations inthe economic sector. Additionally, the size of the bank, liabilitiesof the organizations, and the nature and measure of the expectedprofit can affect the dimensions of the implementation process.

TheMain Research Question

Theprimary research question of this article is connected to the reasonsbehind the enactment and proposal of major taxation laws. Evidently,the article’s writers desired to give out their opinions throughthe reflection of certain events that occur in the current era.Through this article, readers and scholars get to understand how thegoverning bodies can amend laws which fetch deleterious results inthe economic system of any given nation to alter the situation forthe benefit of the majority. Undoubtedly, the main question lingerson the people and organizations which are to be blamed in line withthe negative economic factors that pop up in the contemporary epoch.The authors seek to investigate how the taxation policies can be usedto propel a country towards the desired level of success.

Reasonswhy the Research Question is Interesting

Theresearch question is interesting because it disclosures the financialdirection which leaders ought to embrace. Over the years, both thecitizens and major investors have been complaining over harshtaxation rules which might be affecting their day to day commercialactivities (Shackelfordet al. 2010).The notion which is elevated from the research question depicts whycertain reformations are crucial whenever growth and development isdesired within the boundaries of a country. It goes without beingmentioned that any law which is ratified by the congress or any otherbody that governs a setup should be established based on certainvital circumstances which portray the reasons behind their formation.The economics of scale put bankers on their toes to work in cohesionwith the governmental bodies which assess the development progress ofthe regions where they operate (Sineviciene&amp Railiene, 2015).

Additionally,the study query exposes the history of global economic crisis. Theresearch question is significant because through it people can learnfrom the mistakes of the past. The people of different nations tendto visualize on how their countries can develop without embarking oncertain policies that affected their growth in the past years. Thehistory of the collection of levies can be traced way back evenbefore the formation of other developing nations. However, themanagement of the collected duties was fundamental because itaffected the development of these past setups in a manner that cannotbe overlooked. With this in mind, major governing structures andfinancial institutions embrace methods that merge with the interestsand perceptions of the majority to prevent the reoccurrence ofmilestones, which can incapacitate their missions in an economicpoint of view.

Thefindings from the research question gives the future financialleaders the effective operational skills to manage theirorganizations. This article reveals the link between the past and thepresent day leaders. For example, the authors expound how the Obamaadministration amended diverse constitutional laws to merge with theoperations of financial firms and the interests of the government andof the citizens of America in the States of America (Shackelfordet al. 2010).A deeper evaluation therefore reveals that the current scholars whoare proclaimed to be the future leaders can retrieve positive lessonsfrom the transactions of the past and those that were recentlyupheld. It is evident that the Obama administration aimed atreforming the taxation policies that were affecting the activities ofdifferent firms located in America. The growth of America as a nationwas affected positively by the laws which were implemented to counterattack the economic crisis, which is still felt by many citizens ofboth the developed and developing countries.

Thearticle explains how the taxation policies affect the lives ofindividuals. This is interesting and captivating based on the factthat the economy is shaped by the efforts of the citizens of acountry. For example, the government and the financial institutionsdepend on the transactions of the people to get the stability thatthey both quest for. This can be explained in various ways. Yet, thethree forces which are the government, the financial firms, and themasses cannot exist without supporting each other. A deeper analysisreveals that the people will find it difficult to get employment inthe job market with the intervention of the government, which setsrules that do not favor certain factions (Pfeiffer&amp Ursprung, 2015).Conversely, the government cannot be managed if there were no peopleto pay the taxes that help them to operate and perform as per theexpectations of the international community.

Howthe Article Answers the Research Question

Thearticle is written in a very professional way. The writers uncoverthe major problems through the research question before makingassumptions that open up a platform for an argument at the initialstages of the text. They highlight the significance of using theproposed and the enacted amendments of taxation in a bid to revealhow the problems that lead to the research question can be solved. Itis worth noting, that the readers could have found it difficult toget the inner meaning and intentions of the authors if the writerswould have failed to pinpoint the challenges that financialinstitutions face in their day to day endeavors.

Additionally,the section where the incentive milestones in the financialmanagement are revealed gives readers a clue on how the taxation lawscan affect various firms. As mentioned, the authors direct moreattention to the parties which get affected extremely by the proposedalterations meant to squeeze the emergence of other crises thattemper with the goals of many nations. It is without any doubt thatbanks and other firms work in cohesion with the government and themasses so that they can attain positive results as per theexpectations of the customers (Godaret al. 2014).However, there is a high probability that most of these institutionsmight fail to accumulate high levels of profits if the taxation lawsare harsh to them. Conversely, the lawmakers tend to evaluate varioussituations before implementing the laws so that stability is achievedin every financial sector.

Theresearch question is also answered through the revelation of theroles of taxation. The writers give a detailed explanation of how thelevies can either boost the management and development of a nation ortaint the goals of the national leaders. It goes without beingmentioned that the most successful countries all over the world arethose which embrace policies that are proven to be effective underdifferent scenarios. Therefore, it can be argued that this is aperfect article which bring to light all the core dynamics connectedto the policies of taxation.


Theresearch question can be answered in many other ways. As mentionedabove, the work of the authors cannot be overlooked at any givenmoment. The use diverse tactics to reveal their perceptions in a veryclear and straightforward way. Nevertheless, the article would havebeen more attractive or rather educative if the writers would haveexposed the findings of a specific investigation connected to thetopic. For example, they could have exposed a statistical approachwhereby the researchers conducted a study to inspect how the enactedlaws affected the citizens of certain countries. At this point, theycould use questionnaires and other legit methods of collecting datato come up with unique findings and results. This method of researchis normally effective because it gives the desired firsthandinformation from the ground level. Additionally, they can deriveinformation and data directly from the managers of the institutionsrather than using the theoretical concept in most parts of thearticle.

Theauthors could also give key examples from countries all over theglobe whose operations have been sabotaged by the economic crisis. Itis worth noting that the highlighted issues not only upset thedevelopment goals of the superior nations, but they are alsoconnected to the third world countries. Hence, the authors could havetried to compare and contrast the impact of different taxationpolicies enacted between two countries with divergent level ofsuccess. For example, comparing a country in Africa and a nation suchas the United States of America can open up a platform of debatewhere the best policies are cherry picked depending on the situationat hand (Lymer, 2013). It would be absurd not to expose thesignificance of uplifting and implementing policies that merge withthe operations of all the countries in the world. In as much as theeconomic power of a nation plays a crucial role in shaping thefinancial decisions that are proposed by their leaders, the mainfocus should be placed on the matters that can boost the economy ofthe entire globe.

Anotherrecommendation revolves on how certain examples can be used toenlighten the policy makers of diverse countries. The writers shouldhave given specific examples of how the laws affected particularorganizations not only in Europe and America but also in othergeographical locations. The justification of taxes should reflect theprimary reasons why financial institutions must fall victims of thetough laws. This process ought to have been coupled with a series ofevents that reveal the stretch of the impact of these laws to certainfinancial institutions. Furthermore, the response of the masses onhow these laws affect their ways of living should have been exposedin the article.


Thesuccess of any given nation relies on the development policiesembraced by their government. The administration of a country shouldimplement policies that elevate the desired goals irrespective of thechallenges that the masses face in their day to day lives. The issueof taxation is very crucial because it can either sabotage the growthof a nation or stir it towards the set goals and objectives. Theauthor clearly reveals how the global economy can be stabilized tothe benefit of the majority. It is essential to note that differenttaxation policies have been proposed over the years by the congress.Nevertheless, the aspect of making the correct decisions in theimplementation process of these policies determine whether thedesired success will be attained or it will be squeezed depending onthe circumstances at hand. Therefore, it is only wise to proclaimthat this article is educative. In as much as there are a fewdynamics which the authors failed to address, it exposes the actualeconomic challenges that many countries across the globe face.


Godar,S., Paetz, C., &amp Truger, A. (2014). Progressive tax reform inOECD countries: Opportunities and obstacles. InternationalJournal of Labour Research,6(1),95.

Lymer,A. (2013). Taxation.Birmingham: Fiscal.

Pfeiffer,S., &amp Ursprung-Steindl, M. (Eds.). (2015). GlobalTrends in VAT/GST and Direct Taxation: Schriftenreihe IStR Band 93(Vol. 93). New York: Linde Verlag GmbH.

Shackelford,D. A., Shaviro, D., &amp Slemrod, J. B. (2010). Taxation and thefinancial sector. NationalTax Journal.63 (4, Part 1), 781–806

Sineviciene,L., &amp Railiene, G. (2015). The nexus between government size, taxburden and private investment. Procedia-Socialand Behavioral Sciences,213,485-490.

Article Review

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Subjectand Theme

Therelationship between public administrators and legislatorsconstitutes the central theme of the article “TheMyth of the Dichotomy: Complementarity of Politics and Administrationin the Past and Future of Public Administration”by James H. Svara. The author explores previous studies regardingthe theme and notably basis most of his content in the works by Lynnand Simmons. Additionally, he offers his perspectives regarding thetopic whereby he emphasizes that the main subject that interests himis to comprehend the relationship between politicians andadministrators (Svara, 2001). The central questions that the authorseeks to answer regard the nature of the relationship betweenpoliticians and administrators and more so whether the perceiveddichotomy relationship nature continues to exist.


Svara(2001) conducted a secondary qualitative study. One of theassumptions that he made was that no other recent study had unveilednew information regarding the complementarity of politics andadministration. Therefore, he was unbiased in his selection of thearticles for review and assumed that the information contained werestill relevant. Additionally, it is evident that Svara had to assumethat there must be a form of relationship between public admirationand legislature despite the changes that have occurred over time.


Oneof the main arguments is that there must be a relationship betweenpublic administrators and politicians. It is also evident thatdifferent persons have conflicting perspectives regarding the natureof this relationship and whether it has instantly evolved or it hasgradually been doing so. The author also explores what it would meanto have a separation between administration and legislator. Thediscussion also covers traditional and modern nature and rolesbetween legislators and public administrators. To comprehend howpoliticians interact with administrators, Svara (2001) formulated amodel. The framework tries to uncover the level of theadministrators’ independence and elected officials’ degree ofcontrol. It also reveals the complementary duties of each.

Strengthsand Weaknesses

Oneof the strengths of the article is the extensive literature reviewconducted. This demonstrates that the researcher attempted tounderstand different perspectives regarding the topic beforeoutlining his position. The ideas in the article are well categorizedand chronologically arranged such that it is easy for the audience tofollow. Svara (2001) uses a model to explain the relationship betweenhis research variables, thereby improving the understanding of howthe two interact. However, the failure to conduct any form of dataanalysis marks one of the weaknesses. The data analysis is importantas it highlights the popularity of the concepts. Another weakness isthat the author did not appear to have some form of selectioncriteria for the articles that were used (Svara, 2001). Therefore, itis not clear whether all the information presented is up-to-date.


Indeed,the researcher articulates the reasons why the idea of dichotomypersists in regard to public administrators and politicians. The factthat the author has clearly spelled them out shows that sufficientsystematic literature review was conducted to generate a list ofpossible reasons. This information reveals that the researcherachieved his research goals because the report has demonstrated thenature of the relationship between the variables under study. Infact, he used a model to make this interaction vivid. However, morecould have been done to improve its credibility of the articlethrough choosing a mixed research design. Alternatively, theresearcher could have incorporated some form of qualitative dataanalysis to ensure that the findings and conclusions are an accuratedepiction of the relationship between the two parties.


Svara,J. (2001). The myth of the dichotomy: Complementary of politics andadministration in

thepast and future of public administration. PublicAdministration Review,61(2), 176-183