Article summary and relationship to site placement Abstract

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Articlesummary and relationship to site placement

Abstract

Primaryciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare condition that is common ininfants, young children, and adults. Even though it affects aninsignificant percentage of the global population, necessaryinterventions must be put in place to help those already affected.Several organizations play a crucial role in helping infants andyoung children having PCD, a perfect example being The NurturingPlace (TNP). TNP works under the York Street Project and helps youngchildren with PCD by having teachers attend to them and provide themwith choices of developmentally appropriate activities. Toeffectively handle these children, TNP teachers must obtaininformation from various sources such as articles that explore PCD indepth. This essay summarizes an article examining PCD as one of theproblems faced by infants, young children, and adults in contemporarysociety with a specific focus on its clinical manifestations,diagnosis, screening tests, and treatment options. The essay alsohighlights a connection between the topic of PCD in infants and thework done by teachers and interns at TNP.

Articlesummary and relationship to site placement

Forthis course, students are placed social service organization oragency to perform tasks and engage in learning activities associatedwith the acquisition of professional standards and behaviors. Forstudents to fulfill these requirements, they are expected to workunder the supervision of a field supervisor. The Nurturing Place(TNP), serving as my placement site, has provided me with anopportunity of relating with low-income and homeless mothers withchildren aged four months to six years. TNP has classrooms that areset up in learning centers that provide the children with choices ofdevelopmentally appropriate activities and provide a platform for ourdirect interaction with them. As an intern at the organization, mytasks include actively participating in classroom routines,documenting children`s play, interacting positively with all childrenand staff, and assisting teachers in implementing activities thatpromote the children`s social, physical, and intellectual growth. Atthe site, I have come across children who face several challengesother than homelessness. I have had the opportunity to interact withan 8-month old baby named Noah, diagnosed with primary ciliarydyskinesia (PCD). From the mother`s explanations, Noah together withthe brother (4-year old) was born with the condition although theyunderwent surgery and did excellently. The two were back to thedaycare less than a week from the time of my interaction with them.One of my tasks was to support them physically and emotionally, whichinvolved making them understand and know all about their rarecondition. PCD is rare condition causing deaths of infants, youngchildren, and adults globally. With Noah and the brother undergoingsuccessful surgery to avoid possible death, my focus has been onexploring the topic of PCD among infants. The article &quotPrimaryCiliary Dyskinesia in Children: A Review for Pediatricians,Allergists, and Pediatric Pulmonologists&quot by Stillwell,Wartchow, &amp Sagel (2011) defines PCD and explores its clinicalmanifestations, diagnosis, screening tests, and treatment. Therefore,it is crucial to my task of interacting with Noah, the brother, andother young children at TNP, who previously and currently suffer fromPCD.

of the article

Thisarticle begins by defining PCD as a rare genetic condition, which dueto poorly functioning cilia, causes impairment when it comes tomucociliary clearance. PCD affects infants, young children, andadults with several studies estimating that 1 person in every 20,000or 60,000 people in the United States has PCD. This article furtherpostulates that symptoms or manifestations of PCD are determined,learned, or understood by focusing on the functioning anddistribution of cilia in the respiratory tract. In the human body,immotility or motility of the cilia depends on the intended functionor location. The upper respiratory act encompassing paranasalsinuses, nasal passages, nasopharynx, and eustachian tubes, oftencontains motile cilia. The motile cilia are also found in thereproductive line of men and women as well as the ependymal lining ofthe brain. The presence of cilia in the respiratory tract plays anintegral role in mucociliary clearance. Therefore, for humans toundergo mucociliary clearance in an effective manner, it is importantfor them to have the right number of cilia in the body, appropriatewave form, as well as intercellular coordination (Stillwell et al.,2011).

Accordingto the article, PCD symptoms are manifested in body organs whosenormal functioning is dependent on ciliary motility. Of course, theoperation of both the upper and lower respiratory tract dependlargely on ciliary motility. This means that PCD symptoms can beobserved in the respiratory tract, both upper and lower parts. Mostmanifestations of PCD are always after birth, and these includecoughing, chest congestion, hypoxia, and tachypnea. In worst cases,PCD can be manifested by infrequent respiratory failure whooccurrence is attributed to neonatal pneumonia, wet lungs, or thenewborn`s transient tachypnea. This article further states thatchildren with PCD commonly experience hearing problems. In peopleaged 16 and above, PCD can lead to chronic and recurrent sinusitis,bronchitis, as well as chronic pneumonia. The article states thatdiagnosis of PCD must be at an early stage to prevent adverse impactssuch as death. However, PCD diagnosis is often delayed as itspresenting symptoms such as otitis media, rhinitis, recurrentbronchitis, and cough, are also common in healthy children with nomedical problems. To effectively diagnose PCD, the basis and focusshould be on the presence of a typical clinical phenotype alongsidethe identification of ciliary dysmotility. One of the greatestchallenges faced in PCD diagnosis is that the specialized expertiseand techniques required are often neither readily available norstandardized. Therefore, people having PCD should visit tertiarydiagnostic centers more often (Stillwell et al., 2011).

Moreover,this article explores the screening tests for patients having PCDlisting extremely low levels of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) as one ofthe screening tests done. In line with this, the article states thata person with a high or rather normal value of nasal nitric oxide isunlikely to have PCD. Since there are no specific therapies ortreatments for patients with PCD, this article recommends respiratorymanagement strategies including aggressive treatment of upper andlower airways infections, regular airway clearance through exercise,and routine pulmonary monitoring through chest imaging and lungfunction testing.

Reference

Stillwell,P. C., Wartchow, E. P., &amp Sagel, S. D. (2011). Primary CiliaryDyskinesia in Children: A Review for Pediatricians, Allergists, andPediatric Pulmonologists. PediatricAllergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology Journal,24(4),191–196. http://doi.org/10.1089/ped.2011.0099