Astronomy

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Throughthe use of the telescopes, the autonomists have been able to revealinteresting data about the universe. Images taken from these deviceshave enabled scientists to estimate the age of the world. Thedetermination of the existence of the dark energy is alsoattributable to the images taken from the aerial telescopes asopposed to the earth-based ones. Obviously, these pieces ofinformation cannot be collected by an observation of a naked humaneye. These instruments are placed in the orbits around the earth.They can also be sent farther out into the space to provide a betterview of the universe. These instruments are classified into a varietyof them based on their capabilities. Some of them are utilized in theanalysis of special objects like the sun and the moon while othersare meant to identify different lights emitted by individual objectsto space. For instance, the infrared instrument can view the centerof the galaxies as well study the places where the stars were born.On the other hand, Gamma and X-ray telescopes help in the analyses ofexplosive and hot materials in the space (Riess,Macri, Hoffmann, Scolnic, Casertano, Filippenko, &amp Chornock,2016).Optical telescopes explore the emission of visible light by objectsinto space. These gadgets are very crucial in the study of theinfrared, gamma rays, x-rays, and ultraviolet lights since they areblocked by the atmosphere. The blockage necessitates aerial studies.This paper seeks to explain the reasons for placing telescopes inspace, analyze the functions of one telescope that doesn’t observelight, and some of the significant discoveries made as a result ofusing these instruments.

Anon-optical telescope is the one which examines light emitted to thesky at wavelengths other than those visible to humans. Thesetelescopes exist for the study of gamma, x-rays, ultraviolet, nearinfrared, radio waves, and microwaves. Astronomers make use of thevarious sections of the of the light spectrum leads to theacquisition of accurate information regarding the universe. Forexample, the radio astronomy was responsible for the discovery ofpulsars and is usually relied on to search for extraterrestrial life.Microwave detected the residual heat emanating from the Big Bang(Riessetal.,2016).As for the other telescopes, the concept of electromagnetic spectrumdetection is entirely abandoned, and they instead focus on thedetection of charged particles and neutrons contained in the solarwind. Each of these methods has opened a new window in the field ofastronomy. Most of the opportunities that didn’t exist before havebeen enabled due to the mounting of the telescopes in the space.

Theaerial recording of data by the telescopes has also improved thequality of the information recorded. Initially, the ground-basedobservations required the viewer to find highly elevated regions withminimal light pollution. Despite adherence to this measure theground-based images and interpretation of the universe do not offerthe best results. The atmospheric turbulence limits the sharpness ofthe images taken from these vintage points. An example of the impactsof the atmospheric turbulence is the way the stars appear to twinklewhen viewed by a person from the surface of the earth. In space,however, the instruments have an ability get a clearer view ofeverything from the explosion of the stars to data related to othergalaxies. Additionally, the ground-based devices may not be reliablebecause they do not detect all the light containing reliableinformation. Much of the ultraviolet and infrared light passingthrough space is absorbed by the earth’s atmosphere making itdifficult for the ground-based devices to trace significant data.Nonetheless, the space telescopes prove to be more reliable becausethey can detect these waves. According to Space Telescope ScienceInstitute (STScI), even the newly advanced telescopes cannot view thewaves that have been blocked by the atmosphere. These managers of theHubble research program argue that regardless of the adaptive opticsto eliminate the impacts of atmospheric distortion, they do notfunction as efficiently as the space-based ones (Riessetal.,2016).

Radiotelescopes, infrared, UV, and X-ray telescopes are considered asnon-optical telescopes (Riessetal.,2016).Based on science, the radio waves have a much larger wavelength thatthe light. Therefore, the non-optical telescopes are usually biggerthat the optical devices. The capturing of the longer wavelengths ofthe incoming energy necessitates the presence of a larger dish. Somescientists also argue that these devices have to be combined for themto serve their purpose correctly. The devices have a capability to bemaneuvered to trace the source of the emissions as they with thesource on the earth while it rotates. These non-optical devices use aparabolic mirror for focusing the radiation onto a detector just asin the case of optical reflecting telescopes. These devices aremounted to space since the non-visible waves such as the UV andInfrared cannot penetrate the atmosphere to reach the device.

However,in this study, I will be analyzing the use of the radio wavetelescope. Devices under this category only detect the pieces ofinformation transmitted by the energy lies between the longerwavelengths as shown in the diagram below (Kelley,Mandel, &amp Ramirez-Ruiz, 2013).The largest radio dish in the world is the Arecibo Telescope whichhas a 305 meters diameter (Kelleyetal.,2013).According to analysts the resolution of a telescope is determined byboth the wavelength of the light it focuses on and its diameter(Kelleyetal.,2013).The value of the resolution is, therefore, given by a division of thewavelength and the diameter of the dish. The smaller the value, thelower the details the instrument can distinguish.

Theachievement of this type of telescopes is attributable to the abilityof the radio waves from the atmosphere without any obstacles. Thesetelescopes have an ability to observe and record data on a cloudyday. This makes the devices reliable even when certain environmentconditions may limit other types. In principle, therefore, puttingthese telescopes in the space is a necessity (Kelleyetal.,2013).Nevertheless, scientists have supported the aerial observation due tothe supplementing benefits of this approach. These instruments alsomake use of a process known as interferometry for efficiency (Kelleyetal.,2013).This approach allows the use of several devices distributed overspace or on earth to take data which are combined to come up withimages with a resolution similar to the ones taken with a singletelescope. The radio telescopes have a capability of obtainingincredibly small details. An example of the application of thistechnique is the Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA) (Kelleyetal.,2013).This system consists of over ten radio observatories whose spatialarrangement ranges from Puerto Rico to Hawaii. This arrangementconstitutes nearly one-third of the universe, and hence it’s a veryfamous example of interferometry. Astronomers can collect informationas if they had a telescope the size of the entire universe by justplacing the observatories around the orbit of the earth. The JapaneseHALCA mission served as the first achievement of the spaceinterferometry (Kelleyetal.,2013).This mission ran from 1997 to 2005. The second such dedicated missionwas launched in 2011 as the Russian Spektr-R satellite. Since thediscovery of the radio emission in the 1930s by Karl Jansky, a lot ofresearch regarding the universe has been enabled. Grote Reber pursuedthis discovery regarding this discovery despite the lack of interestat the time (Kelleyetal.,2013).The invention of the radar during the Second World War facilitatedthe application of this scientific discovery in the study of theworld.

It’sabout 400 years since the discovery of the telescope and it stillserves as one of the essential instrument in science. Throughout the400 years, its use has not only changed our understanding of theuniverse but that of us. The ancient discovery of the Galileo’stelescope proved to the human race that the earth was much largerthan it was thought to be (Bahcall,2015).Based on the reactions of many people, the major impression was howthe device brought the stars closer to the people and enabledaccounting for the parts of the space that were not observablebefore. Currently, a pair of this telescope costs for only a fewdollars allowing all the people to view as well as study theuniverse.

Moreover,through his proof that the world was larger than we thought and theassertion that the universe was expanding, Edwin Hubble changed ourthoughts regarding the universe. The Hubble Space Telescope offersthe world amazing high-quality images. His discovery serves as themost productive space instrument ever built. More than 4,000astronomers have used the device since April 24, 1990, to preparemore than 12,700 scientific documents (Bahcall,2015).The instrument captured images that led to the interpretation of thedark and bright regions on the surface of the dwarf planet Ceres.Hubble helped in the discovery of the new Pluto moons after thepeering at the distant of this continent’s distant. Through thestudy of the pulsating stars referred to as the Cepheid variablesusing his telescope, Hubble helped in the nailing down of the age ofthe universe. He estimated that the world is 13.82 billion years withan accuracy of about 5% (Bahcall,2015).

Inconclusion, as evident in this paper, telescopes are of greatimportance in the universe today. These devices are classified basedon the type of energy they use to collect information regarding theworld. The importance of the placing the telescopes into space asopposed to the ground-based instruments if to ensure all the wavesregardless of their wavelength are recorded. Ground devices do notacquire adequate information regarding the universe due to theatmospheric distractions. However, the radio telescopes are notdistracted by these challenges. The waves involved have a capabilityeven to penetrate the clouds. Nevertheless, it’s advisable to placethese devices in space as well. Ground radio telescopes can bearranged in space in a way that allows higher resolution and largercoverage of the universe. Huddle’s and Galileo’s space deviceshelped change our thinking regarding the universe.

References

Bahcall,N. A. (2015). Hubble’s Law and the expanding universe.&nbspProceedingsof the National Academy of Sciences,&nbsp112(11),3173-3175.

Kelley,L. Z., Mandel, I., &amp Ramirez-Ruiz, E. (2013). Electromagnetictransients as triggers in searches for gravitational waves fromcompact binary mergers.&nbspPhysicalReview D,&nbsp87(12),123004.

Riess,A. G., Macri, L. M., Hoffmann, S. L., Scolnic, D., Casertano, S.,Filippenko, A. V., … &amp Chornock, R. (2016). A 2.4%DETERMINATION OF THE LOCAL VALUE OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANTBased onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained atthe Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.&nbspTheAstrophysical Journal,&nbsp826(1),56.