BLACKSFIGHTING FOR EQUALITY
Discrimination and racism have been a primary issue affecting theUnited States of America since the colonization period and also theslave years. White people got privileges, and other races gotexcluded. Only European Americans who were Anglo-Saxon Protestantsgot granted benefits in matters concerning immigration, education,citizen whip and also issues concerning the land acquisition. Peoplefrom other races i.e. some Native Americans, African Americans Asian,Americans and also Hispanic and Latin Americans suffered exclusionand many other forms of discrimination by the governments thatexisted at the time. Discrimination also affected people of differentreligions such as the Jews and Arabs as they could not identify aswhites.
Racism in the United States was evident through slavery, segregationdifferentiation in education systems, and even the law system inaccordance to how justice got served. While racism has reduced overthe past years in the United States of America, some types ofdiscrimination are still evident in the day to day lives especiallyconcerning the African American people. After the United had statedgained independence from the Great Britain, it tried to part it fromthe British ideologies, but the need to separate the population wassignificant. It led to the distinction of people according to races,and people viewed it as a way of enhancing the development of thecountry. Slavery attributes to the beginning of racism anddiscrimination. Most of the African Americans got to America asslaves and were used to provide workforce as they were available inlarge numbers thus making plantation agriculture in America moreprofound.
The early 19th century foresaw the abolishment of theslave trade. Organizations got formed with the primary purpose ofrelocating slaves to places where they could enjoy greater freedomsand equality.as much as the governments tried to end racism1.Segregation, discrimination and the expressions of supremacy by thewhites increased drastically thus leading to the first anti-blackriots. The percentage of African Americans grew sharply in citiessuch as Boston, New York, and Chicago this rapid increase of blacksdisturbed the racial balance in this cities and ended up creatinghostility between the blacks and the white’s 2.inthe economic nature, employment of blacks was isolated to the lowestand most underpaying jobs. During this period, racism-relatedviolence escalated especially in Chicago where it was most violent,and scenes of mob violence such as hangings and lynching were moreevident.
Jim Crow laws were state and local legislation and regulations whichwere enacted and implemented mostly between the year 1876 and 1965.The rules were put in place to regulate social, political andeconomic relationships between whites and blacks. They began as aprohibition on intermarriages between the whites and AfricanAmericans and later spread across the states. This law called forseparate but equal treatment of black Americans about the whites.Nevertheless, this did not improve the status of the blacks. It ledto inferior treatments mostly on issues concerning, education housingand transport areas. This law advocated for separate facilities forthe African American by schools and even public transportation3.Segregation in schools later got declared unconstitutional afterdifferent cases were brought to the law courts challenging thedirective. This law did nothing in reducing racism and discriminationas violent and non-violent protests continued taking place. Anexample is where four students decided to undertake a non-violentsit-in in a restaurant where they had been ignored and not served.Whites in the place harassed them to the extent of pouring ketchupand burning them with cigarettes .after many of this sit-ins anotherform of protests places started to give equal service to all people.The Jim Crow laws and doctrines created a two-track delivery systemfor services being offered by facilities.
Jim Crow laws also referred to as the black codes created so muchsegregation between the whites and blacks that they are still evidenteven at the current time. This law went to the extent of denyingblacks the right to vote, get involved in elections, the right offree movement and even to intermarry with the whites. Otherprejudices and discriminations took place the major and most inhumanbeing the denial of fair trial and allowing the murder of those inthe wrong through lynching. Later bans were put in place on this lawsespecially in places where people met. They included some cities andtowns. The rules viewed as reforms at first turned out to be morallywrong later.
Although the United States is perceived by many as a nation ofmigrants, the treatment of this new people is always different fromthat of the native whites in the country. Many restrictions thatprevented equality got enacted between 1790 and 19524.lawmakers set up regulations that prevented the act of neutralization.It’s the process an immigrant undergoes so as to become a citizenof the host country. The US discrimination proved harmful as many ofits laws concerning immigration were adopted by other differentcountries thus increasing discrimination through race andethnicity.in the current world, most of this laws have beenabolished, but discrimination and racism are still evident in otherforms.
Internalized racism is another form of racism but should not beconfused with other paradigms that are used to explain dysfunctionamong people of color.it should not be just understood in a shallowmanner which encompasses low self-esteem, color discrimination,stereotyping and self-hatred among people of color. Thus internalizedracism is the condition that occurs when a group or racialdiscriminated people supports the dominance of those who discriminatethem by engaging in behaviors and ideologies that support thedominant group`s power over them.it encompasses a few essentialelements which help describe how it works. Decision making is thefirst item.it is evident that racism makes people of color unable tomake decisions that involve their lives and the resources needed. Asa result, these people believe that the white people have a greaterknowledge of what needs to be done for them more than they do.
The whites mostly control resources, and internalized racism createsdifficulties for people of color to access resources and gain controlover them so as to improve their community. People of color also findit difficult to live according to their standards as they comparethemselves to the white people who they consider superior. Naming theproblem is also another element that reflects internalized racism.The system associated most difficulties with the people of color tothe extent that this person also believed. During the times whenracism and discrimination were rampant in the United States ofAmerica, many civil rights movement emerged to counter this problemthat faced the African Americans. The first of the amendments thattook place was the abolishment of the slave trade. Nevertheless, thisbill provided neither equality nor citizenship rights to the people5.This movement foresaw the election of any black leaders in local andstate offices and other community departments and their intentionmostly about supporting education. Some activist also tried to uselegislation as a way of eliminating discrimination in the governmentand private sector, but this did not work at the moment as the courtsdenied the efforts. The court held that the Congress did not have thepower to put a stop to racism and discrimination especially in theprivate sector businesses. Most of this activists tried to restorethe rights of African Americans, especially about citizenship afterthey had been diminished by the presence of the Jim Crow laws mostlyin the south.
The relationship between education, oppression, and liberation is akey to understanding more about racism, discrimination, and otherrace-related prejudices. Many right activists have conducted a lot ofresearch regarding this subject.An example the civil rights activistWilliam Edward Burghardt DuBois who wrote a lot of race equality andthe advantages of education. He strongly suggested education as thekey to helping black Americans liberate themselves from racism. Thedifferent views led to a vigorous debate with another activist Bookert Washington whose opinion suggested that self-help and the gainingof practical skills as the best way to liberation. These discussionswere more about the greatest strategies that could help achieveequality among people in the society6.This activism played a significant role in helping African Americansgain control of the education sector and end institutions that wereaffected by racism structures.
As a result, it’s clear that teaching and liberation are twodifferent terms, but both contribute a lot to the freedom of humanbeings. Education mostly encompasses the process of learning andacquiring knowledge in relevant areas and thus gaining training andskills thus developing the intellectual capacity of a person whileliberation is to free something. The relation between the two can betraced back from Paul Freire who was a renowned educationalist.Education and Liberation complement each other as education helps aperson recognize what is restricting his development and thus he orshe can work in the area.
Stereotyping has played a big part in encouraging racism anddiscrimination too. A good example is where you are at a hotel with agroup of coworkers telling them that you want to buy a house in theblack suburbs around Chicago and that you are very excited about thestep.In the process, one of them tells you of how black communitiesare affected by crime which includes robberies, drugs, and evenmurder just because it is a black neighborhood. It’s an excellentexample of racial prejudice affecting the African American citizensin the United States. Thus racial discrimination is encompassed bythe discriminatory beliefs and attitude towards a group of people dueto their skin color and where they originate. It leads to racism asit is supported by even institutions and the law.in the UnitedStates, racial prejudice is mainly by the citizens who have aEuropean origin to black people and also Latinos. It resulted inracism-related violence, stereotypes, underfunding of schools policebrutality and even inadequate housing for the oppressed people evento the present day.
Therefore it is important to reduce racial prejudice and racism asthey prevent a person being oppressed from achieving his fullpotential, curb the ability of the individual to be productive in thesociety. They also create the likelihood of retaliation by the personor group of people being discriminated, and in most cases, racism isillegal as it goes against the democracy of the United States ofAmerica. Racial Stereotypes play a significant part in creatinggender stereotypes. It has considerable influence on the growth anddevelopment of women in the African American culture which can followthem all through in their lives. These stereotypes affect how womenview themselves and how other people view them especially regardingrelationships, sexuality and even scholarly and employment prospects.However, this stereotypes can have a very significant impact on thelives of women. Differences between how white women and AfricanAmerican women are viewed create a set of norms that end upinfluencing the value these women put on themselves.
Research suggests that both types of women see womanhood the same waybut the inner strength component is more pronounced on AfricanAmerican women. Across different ethnicities, women are sexualizedand used as objects by the media7.Although other women from the various ethnic backgrounds haveexperienced this type of victimization, slavery associated the sexualexploitation of African American women with inhuman acts. Womenplayed a prominent role in the abolishment of the slave trade. Thelikes of Frederick Douglas, Harriet Jacobs, and Maria Stewart playeda leading role in the eradication of this stereotypes, but the outputis not evident.
Adams-Bass, ValerieN., Howard C. Stevenson, and Diana Slaughter Kotzin. "Gagingthe meaning of Black media stereotypes and their relationship to theracial personality, Black history knowledge, and ethnic socializationof African American youth." Journal of Black Studies 45,no. 5 (2014): 367-395.
Hall, JacquelynDowd. "The long civil rights drive and the political uses of thepast." The Journal of American History 91, no.4 (2005): 1233-1263.
Klarman, MichaelJ. From Jim Crow to Civil rights: The Supreme Court and thestruggle for racial equality. Oxford University Press, 2004.
Omi, Michael, andHoward Winant. Racial formation in the United States.Routledge, 2014.
Rosado, Caleb. "Theundergirding factor is power: Toward a consideration ofprejudice and racism." Unpublished paper). Retrievedfrom Rosado Consulting website http://www. rosado.net/pdf/Under_factor_Power_article. pdf (1996).
Ullucci, Kerri."Book Review: Racism Devoid of Racists: Color-Blind Prejudiceand the Persistence of Racial Unfairness in the United States." UrbanEducation 41, no. 5 (2006): 533-540.
Williams, David R.,and Ruth Williams-Morris. "Discrimination and mental health:The African American experience." Ethnicity andhealth 5, no. 3/4 (2000): 243.
1 Michael Omi, and Howard Winant. Racial formation in the United States. Routledge, 2014.
2 Kerri Ullucci,. Racism Without Racists:Urban Education 41, no. 5 (2006): 533-540.
3Michael Klarman J. From Jim Crow to Civil rights: Oxford University Press, 2004.
4 Caleb Rosado. "The undergirding factor is power http://www. rosado. net/pdf/Under_factor_Power_article. pdf (1996).
5 David R William., and Ruth Williams-Morris. "Discrimination and mental health Ethnicity and health 5, no. 3/4 (2000): 243.
6 Dowd Jacquelyn Hall.  The Journal of American History 91, no. 4 (2005): 1233-1263.
7 Valerie Adams-Bass, Howard C. Stevenson, and Diana Slaughter Kotzin. Journal of Black Studies 45, no. 5 (2014): 367-395.