Challengesand Issues of Brain DrainNameCourseInstitutionDateBrainDrain Issue and ChallengesThebraindrainis a common phrase in the economic setup of most developingcountries. The term refers to the migration of intellectuals, likethe healthcare personnel, university lectures, and scholars from lessdeveloped states to developed countries due to several reasons. Theconcept of brain drain is as old as humankind around the globe. Theterm was, however, first coined in the 1960s when a good number ofindividuals, from the field of science and engineering and who werethe strong assets in the newly formed states as well as the UnitedKingdom, emigrated to the United States of America. Even though themovement of intellectuals from one country to another is a key factorin facilitating dissemination of information and extending thecultural horizons, substantial exportation of academic talent exposesthe providing nations to depletion of the consistent supply ofacademicians and professionals (Marchiori, Shen, and Docquier, 2013).The large migration in the modern society has raised eyebrows due tothe adverse impacts and the challenges experienced in the developingcountries economic sectors. In most cases, the countries haveremarkably invested in the education and training of such individuals(Schiff and Docquier, 2016). The migration means that the nation`sloss a sizable amount of resources when the people migrate. Therecipient countries are on the benefitting side since they do notfork out any capital towards their training and education.Undeniably, learned individuals form part of the most expensiveresources that a country cannot afford to lose because of the costand time used and the opportunities lost. Studies carried out in thewhole of 2000s indicate that over 175 million people were not livingoutside their countries of origin. This number represented about 2.9%of the global population (Tessema, 2015). Out of this figure, over 60million were economically active in the foreign countries. Ideally,brain drain is caused by some issues and leads to numerous challengesthat should be addressed to save the developing countries. Thereare a myriad or reasons that are attributed to the concept of braindrain in third world countries. One of the causes is high rates ofunemployment and underemployment. From statistics, a significantportion of graduates and other trained personnel in developingcountries are languishing in unemployment. At times, the fields thatthey are employed in do not satisfy their skills exhaustively. Forexample, in such countries, you may find a university graduate,working in a supermarket as an attendant or a cashier. This situationhas always compelled them to move to European countries and Americathat are developed since they are sure that they will get absorbed inthe fields of their interest more quickly. The demand for theirqualifications is high in such countries. Official statisticscollected by the Association of the Southeast Asian NationsSecretariat indicate that unemployment is still a major headache tothe citizens living in these countries (Harrington, Munoz, Curs, andEhlert, 2016). The issue reflects not only the lack of inclusivity inthe economic growth of those countries but also the problem of braindrain. From the data, it is clear that countries with high populationgrowth rate like Philippines and Indonesia have elevated levels ofjoblessness. In fact, the rate has been consistent in the Philippinessince 2008 as per the table below. Anotherissue attributed to brain drain is poor remuneration. The wages andsalaries are extremely low. Individuals who are lucky to land someemployment are forced to accept low compensation (Azano and Besnoy,2016). This concept is one of the motivation factors behind the issueof brain drain. Most of the professionals that are paid peanuts, intheir countries, are likely to move to the developed countries wheretheir expertise will receive maximum recognition reflected throughthe increased salaries and allowances at the workstation. Themotivation that is attached to the good salaries is also attractive.Professionals are given adequate funds in the workplace to carry outstudies. Such moves have been the main attraction for researchers andscientists to go from third world countries that are always lackingthis facility due to their economic incapability. They are sure thatthey will access both funds and services immediately after landing inthe foreign countries. Politicalinstability is also another pertinent issue. This condition has mademany learned natives to completely lose confidence in their governingbodies and their future dreams of a better life. They are always atconflict due to ethnic, religious, cultural differences, or theirdifferent political stand back in their home country. Politicalinstability and failed economic structures go hand in hand. Pressuresattached to economic uncertainty like poverty, the sporadic increasein population, diseases, illiteracy levels and pollution of theenvironment always give rise to a volatile combination of insecurity(Cantore and Cali, 2015). It is this cocktail that leads to violentwar, civil conflicts, riots, and other types of political mayhem.Studies indicate that internal and regional conflicts are some of thechief precipitators of the unexpected levels of brain drain. Anotherissue, which is attributed to the mass migration of individuals, isthe search for quality education. Most people, from the developingcountries, are in dire need of quality education. However, thefacilities are not available or adequate in their country of origin.Therefore, they will use any available opportunity to move todeveloped countries and never return to their countries even aftergaining the skills they wanted. In the third world countries, theeducation sector is characterized by weak systems, inadequatefacilities that only offer basic ideas on what learners shouldrealize at the end of the course. Ideally, the concept ofinternational students has been at the forefront in increasing themovement of individuals since they are always seen as the futuresource of expertise and innovation (Kaba, 2012). It is the precursorto personal migration and a move employed by the foreign countries tofish the crème de la crème of the poor states. In Asia alone, over2 million people moved from the country of origin to further theireducation overseas between 1998 and 2003 (Getahun, 2016).Anglo-nations lead in attracting students due to their renownedtraining facilities globally. The leading nation in hostinginternational students is the United States of America. It isfollowed closely by United Kingdom, France, Australia, and Germanyconsecutively. Severalchallenges arise from brain drain. One of the problems experienced bythe mother countries is slow economic growth. Ideally, one`sindividuals move from their country they become more vibrant andactive in the building of the recipient state economy than that oftheir countries of origin. In the long run, the economy of thecountries in which they sought green pastures grows due to theavailability of competent personnel in all the fields. The mothercountry is left languishing in poverty since it has been deprived ofits brightest population (Khan and Bashar,2016). Another challenge is the slowed investment rate in thecountry. Naturally, investments are made by people, and they movewith them too. Therefore, when individuals move from one nation toanother, they move with the investments that they had made leavingthe country underdeveloped. Braindrain also has detrimental consequences on the GDP equation. In thefirst place, the nation is deprived of skilled labor. The size of theavailable labor rapidly diminishes. Besides, the most intelligent getcarried away to the developed states due to the availableopportunities. It, therefore, leads to higher opportunities, weakeconomic growth and consequently little tax revenue (Lien, 2014). Thechallenges clearly indicate that nations have come up with policiesto address it. One of the solutions includes structuring soundgoverning policies. Wages offered to the citizens should also be highto match their qualifications. Developing countries should alsoinvest heavily in the education sector to ensure that its populationdoes not migrate to further their studies. Thediscussion brings out clearly that brain drain is one of the economicchallenges affecting less developed countries. Political instability,unemployment, low salaries and inadequate education facilities havebeen attributed to this concept. The problems resulting from theissue are injurious not only to the economic setup of the country butalso to the economic structure. The rate of economic growth andinvestment is slowed down. The GDP equation is affected on bothsides since the labor gets diminished and the tax revenue reduces. Itis, therefore, essential for the nations to come up with measureslike increasing the wages, improving the education sector and goodgovernance to eliminate chances of people migrating to foreigncountries.ReferencesAzano,A. P., & Besnoy, K. (2016).Introduction.Journalof Advanced Academics,27(4),243-244.Cantore,N., & Calì, M. (2015).The Impact of Temporary Migration onSource Countries.InternationalMigration Review,49(3),697-726.Getahun,S. A. (2016). Brain Drain and Its Impact on Ethiopia`s HigherLearning Institutions: Medical Establishments and the MilitaryAcademies between 1970s and 2000. Perspectiveson Global Development & Technology,5(3),257-275.Harrington,J., Muñoz, J., Curs, B., & Ehlert, M. (2016).Examining theImpact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program onBrain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis ofMissouri`s Bright Flight Program.Researchin Higher Education,57(4),423-447.Kaba,A. J. (2012). The Status of Africa`s Emigration Brain Drain in the21st Century. WesternJournal of Black Studies,35(3),187-195.Khan,H., & Bashar, O. R. (2016). Does globalization create a `levelplaying field` through outsourcing and brain drain in the globaleconomy?Journalof Developing Areas,50191-207.Lien,D. (2014).Economic analysis of transnational education.EducationEconomics,16(2),149-166.Marchiori,L., Shen, I., & Docquier, F. (2013).Brain drain in globalization:a general equilibrium analysis from the sending countries`perspective.EconomicInquiry,51(2),1582-1602.Schiff,M., & Docquier, F. (2016).Institutional impact of brain drain,human capital, and inequality: a political economy analysis. LatinAmerican Journal of Economics,53(1),95-110.Tessema,M. (2015).Causes, Challenges and Prospects of Brain Drain: The Caseof Eritrea.InternationalMigration,48(3),131-157.
- March 28, 2020