Costof crime assignment
Costof crime assignment
Routineactivity theory opines that a crime is a function of routineactivities of a criminal. It explains how motivated adversariesidentify suitable targets and opportunities in the course of everydayactivities (DiMarino& Roberson, 2015).An offense if committed when an adversary, target, and opportunityconverge in time and space. The prevention of the occurrence of crimebecomes a reality when one of the three factors is eliminated.
Thebasis of the lifestyle theory is that any criminal behavior, such asrobbery or rape, is an indication that the victim’s way of lifeplaced them at an increased risk. WalshA. (2014) argues that thelikelihood of a criminal attack depends on the extent to which thepotential victim increases their suitability as a target, and reducesthe effective guardianship that keeps criminals away. A lifestyleconsists of regular activities. If these include walking in darkstreets often, the criminals then perceive the individual as anattractive and vulnerable target and are more likely to attack theperson.
Diffusionof benefits is a result of crime prevention strategies. It occurswhen potential criminals become aware of new anti-crime measures butare not sure about their exact scope. Due to this uncertainty, theymay believe that the crime prevention actions have a wider reach thanthey have in reality. Diffusion of benefits works best when theprobable offenders do not know the intensity of the preventionmechanisms, and how widespread they are.
Thetwo areas where diffusion may occur are in the geographic and targetranges. In the geographic scope, diffusion occurred where likelyoffenders did not know the exact area covered by new measures. Ifpolice install surveillance cameras in several areas of a city, crimerates drop citywide and not the in areas under surveillance alone. Inthe target scope, criminals may shift to new targets if they do notknow the number of similar targets covered by an anti-crime effort(Eck, & Weisburd,2015).For example, if a transport company installed trackers on some of itsvehicles, would-be carjackers would stay away from the entire fleetas they would be unable to distinguish between protected andunprotected vehicles.
DiMarinoF. & Roberson C. (2015), Introductionto Corporate and White-Collar Crime,CRC Press
EckJ. E. & Weisburd D. L. (2015). Crimeplaces in crime theory.Topof FormRetrieved fromhttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.362.1293&rep=rep1&type=pdf,Accessed on 23 March 2017
WalshA. (2014), Criminology:The Essentials,SAGE Publications