Crime and the Environment

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Crimeand the Environment

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Crimeand the Environment

PartOne: Factors that May Contribute to Violent and Aggressive Behavior


Certainareas of the human brain are known to increase aggressive behavior inpeople when stimulated. Therefore, genetics influences this behavior.In some individuals, alcoholic drinks can cause violent behaviorbecause it decreases self-awareness and the ability to understand theoutcome of the aggressive act (Gini, Pozzoli, &amp Hymel, 2014).


Peoplecan be aggressive because of frustration. It occurs where there isthe blocking of a goal-directed behavior where the victims have afear of punishment, thus displacing it against other targets oroneself. An emotional readiness to perform an aggressive behavior canarise when an individual who frustrates the other could behaveotherwise (Gini etal. 2014).


Individualsmight choose to be aggressive because of their surroundings. Suchpeople might be using this technique as a defensive mechanism againstwhat they perceive to be harmful. Individuals who live in hostileregions might turn violent when they think that a person from outsideis about to attack them (Gini etal. 2014).


Physicallyinjured individuals may turn violent or aggressive in case they sensesigns that something may cause harm to them. It, therefore, triggersthe response to fight back. A person who was hurt or injured beforein a given scenario may be aggressive when similar events happenlater in life (Gini etal. 2014).

PartTwo: Lawrence Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Development

Obedienceand Punishment Orientation: Individuals in this step are good theybehave in the right way to avoid punishment. In a case where one ispunished, he or she must have done wrong (Snarey, &amp Samuelson,2015).

Self-InterestOrientation: Children begin to realize that there are various viewsthat the authorities hand down to them. They, therefore, concludethat different people have different opinions on a simple issue(Snarey, &amp Samuelson, 2015).

InterpersonalAccord and Conformity: Children at this stage carry themselves insuch a way that they are seen as genuine people in the eyes ofothers. Answers, in this case, relate to the approval of others(Snarey, &amp Samuelson, 2015).

Authorityand Social-Order Maintaining Orientation: Children at this stagebecome aware of other rules and morals of the society. Thus judgmentsentail upholding the law and avoiding guilt (Snarey, &amp Samuelson,2015).

SocialContract Orientation: An individual at this stage is now aware thatlaws might exist for a majority of the society. There are situationswhere such people will work against the interest of some individuals(Snarey, &amp Samuelson, 2015).

UniversalEthical Principles:Atthis stage, individuals have established their set of moral standardswhich in some cases may not fit the law. These rules apply toeveryone (Snarey, &amp Samuelson, 2015).

PartThree: Areas of Social Adaptation

Onearea of social adaptation is conformity. It is a popular mode ofadjustment where individuals accept both goals and the means ofachieving them. Conformists are known to take the goals and theapproved approach to solving them (McCoy, &amp Pugh, 2014).

Anotherarea is innovation. People who adopt through this method accept thesocietal goals but have a few means of getting their targets. They,therefore, innovate their ways so that they can get ahead (McCoy, &ampPugh, 2014).

Ritualismis another area of social adaptation. Individuals, in this case,abandon the goals they were once determined to achieve so that theycan be within their reach and adjust themselves to the currentlifestyle (McCoy, &amp Pugh, 2014).

Retreatismis also the type of adaptation to those individuals who give up oneverything including the goals and the means. They are mostly foundin the nonproductive kind of lifestyle (McCoy, &amp Pugh, 2014).

Inconclusion, rebellion is the last area of social adaptation. Thistype of adaptation occurs to individuals whose social goals andlegitimate means are rejected. Such people will go ahead and createtheir means, by way of protest (McCoy, &amp Pugh, 2014).


Gini,G., Pozzoli, T., &amp Hymel, S. (2014). Moral disengagement amongthe children and the youth: A meta‐analyticreview of links to aggressive behavior.&nbspAggressiveBehavior,&nbsp40(1),56-68.

McCoy,T., &amp Pugh, M. (2014). Strain Theory.&nbspTheEncyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

Snarey,J., &amp Samuelson, P. L. (2015). Lawrence Kohlberg’srevolutionary ideas.&nbspHandbookof moral and character education,61-83.