Certainly,there is no objection that bullying and school violence have had adevastating negative impact on the development of kids across theglobe. One thing that stands out is that bullying is a repeatedoccurrence and has long-term effects on emotional, cognitive andsocial development of an individual (UNESCO,2017).By definition,bullying is any form of repeated aggressive behavior that may causeboth physical and psychological harm to another person. According toDelprato et al. (2017), bullying and school violence are associatedwith high levels of poor educational achievement in the bulliedstudents. The degree of this drop is a determinant of the age andmaturity of students, and this goes all the way into adulthood forthe bullied students across the divide. In other areas, bullying isrelated to other cognitive deficits marked by a level of isolationthat the students experience once they have been bullied. Lack ofself-control, high degrees of anger and contempt are just some of theexamples of the effects of school violence on the development ofkids. Sickening peer relationships are caused by lack of cognitiveflexibility among fourth graders all the way to eleventh grade andeven into adulthood. Youths who had an experience in their earlychildhood find it had to persevere and become flexible when facedwith challenges during adulthood (Jenkins et al. 2017). The result ofthese emotional imbalances is depression, lack of self-esteem amongothers. Adolescents find it had to cope when this violence seem tooverwhelm their capacities to associate, and some think it is theirfault, therefore, suffer in silence. In their belief to sufferwithout seeking adult help, some end up taking their lives leading toincreased suicide among adolescents. The result and effect ofbullying and school violence behavior on development are what isgoing to form the central focus of this paper.
Childrenwhile growing up experience numerous forms of school violence andvictimizations that have a devastating impact on the self-esteemlevels. A majority of them suffer in silence for fear of either morevictimization as well as violence or for being seen as the maincausers of the problem. The result of this fear is that their levelof motivation to face social challenges as they develop shrivelstremendously. For, instance, a sixth-grade student especially afemale one will feel afraid to expose a teacher who has at one timetried to sexually assault her in school because of the fear ofrepercussions or what the teacher is capable of doing once he deniesthe matter. In the end, their level of their concentration in schooleventually drop, and this has the adverse effect of even leading themto drop out of that class or school all the same. The ramificationsof this challenge on students’ growth and development are globallyspread and also have economic impacts.
Thebullied are at a higher risk than the bullies when it turns todepression. Evidence linking to this fact is promoted by Jenkins etal. (2017) who points out that, negative emotionality and reactivityalways impairs the degree of coping among bullies in any schoolenvironment. They believe that this lack of emotional control leadsthe victims to be stressed thereby suffering the effects of suchstress concerning long-term depression. If they do not report suchinstances to the authorities in school, they build up a body ofemotional instabilities which renders them unable to persevere orchallenge for anything out and inside the school’s environment.
Cyberoppressors also present these effects regarding depression. Thesegroups of electronic bullies such as through the school socialinternet offer the highest degree of depression to those whom theyvictimize. A student who is accustomed to posting private informationon the school’s social website may become a victim of oppression iftheir profiles are hacked and their private photos posted publiclyfor all to see on the school social web. Since handling such matterscan be a great challenge to them, some become so much confused andstressed. It is because of his unattended stress that leads toincreased fear and thereby depression chips in the long run. Forthose who cannot challenge this public confusion ends up taking theshorter path of suicide. It is important for parents, teachers andeven their peers to watch out for these red signs and offerintervention as a fast as possible before it turns out suicidal.
Schoolviolence in the form of sex has the effect of increasing thelikelihood of the victim to conceive unintentionally. Unexpectedpregnancies occur when students become preys of teacher violence inthe sexual form. Sexual abuse at that early age leads to the healthissues such as contraction of HIV for young kids and since they arenot in the right mental level to make decisive resolutions due totheir lack of developmental experiences they may isolate themselvesfrom others which also affects their interpersonal adjustments asthey mature into adulthood. Such forms of violence lead tolong-standing mental challenges for the kids because the flashes ofthese forms of pains keep running through their mind every time theyremember the incident. If left unattended some end up into depressionbecause they are not ready to become mothers at early ages or theylack the right mental aptitude to deal with effects of HIV and othersexually transmitted illnesses.
Anger,Impulsivity, and Contempt
Adolescentspossessing the inability to control their actions and emotions beforeothers have the challenge of maintaining their anger and are veryimpulsive. According to Jenkins et al. (2017), these individuals,posses high dimensions of anger and contempt for authorities whichalways pushes them to seek their evil desires. It is true that evenpassive aggressors have this challenge of anger management which isquite obvious due to their mischief. The more these individuals getinvolved in bullying behavior, the more they develop emotionalproblems in line with anger management. It is, critically,significant for the policy makers to ensure such people haveestablished measures that can guide them in handling theirdifferences void of others. In any case, they are seen close toothers in secluded spaces then there must be a senior or a teacherwho will listen to their conversation and guide them appropriately oreven discipline the aggressors.
Noone can exempt himself from the fact that, bullying has beendocumented to increase adolescent suicides and even thosetransitioning into early adulthood due to bullying. A child raisedfrom a family that values others finds it quite challenging when theyenroll in schools that do the opposite to what they have been taughtright from childhood. Most especially, when adolescents transitionfrom elementary to high school there is that challenge ofexperiencing bullying and aggression at a different level than whatthey were used to in the previous school. These problems associatedwith violence in school as well as victimization always lead toelevated levels of stress for the victims of such behaviors. For themost of those who are introverts, the ability to take in all theinsults and abuses has a limit. They may try to avoid the oppressors,but when the situations get to a point where they cannot take more ofit, some take an overdose of pills to escape the pains. According toKlomek et al. (2011), high school bullying is the home of high-riskdepression and suicide. The degree at which the victims attemptsuicide occurs while they are still in puberty, during adolescent inearly adulthood and even when they are older in life. So it isevident to note that, these instances of suicide attempts are notonly in childhood developmental stages, but they extend all the wayinto adulthood (Klomek et al., 2011).
Alcoholand Drug Abuse
Negatively,bullying and school violence attract bad social behaviors such asalcohol and substance abuse. As these bullies tend to showcase theirability to be powerful in the heart of a school environment thelikelihood that they will indulge in these antisocial activities ishigh. They will always get attracted to using drugs such as cannabisand other hard ones like cocaine so as to remain on top of the chainof command in their school.
Onthe other hand, the oppressed will at one point turn to drugs so asto remove the fear inherent in their personas and to try to hide awayfrom the realities of their pains. For example, a boy who at onepoint has experienced a racial attack or verbal abuse in the presenceof their classmates or colleagues will always resort to soft drugssuch as alcohol so as to cool off the pain. The chances that, thisbehavior will lead to their school dropout increases with eachpassing day. Therefore, it is important for their guardians to bevigilant in instilling discipline in the students so as to curb thisantisocial behavior at all costs.
CriminalActivity, Delinquency, and Mental illnesses
Drugabuse has the consequence of limiting the decision-making the abilityof children as they grow into adulthood. There are certain limitsthat bullies push themselves into so as to remain important in theface of other students. Although bullying might be somethingenjoyable to them, some end up using drugs that inhibit theircognitive reflex ability leading to destructive behaviors such asgetting involved with a crime so as to satisfy their economic needsthat aid in the acquisition of drugs.
Sincevictims of both school violence and bullying exhibit forms ofemotional deregulation, the likelihood that they will becomedelinquent is positively related. For example, a child brought up ina family of abusers such as parents grows up to have those elementsof abuse in their minds even as they develop into adulthood.According to personality theory of social conditioning, when anindividual is trained to use a particular stimulus such as a bell torepresent the availability of food, then, they will act in the sameway when the incentives are provided even when food is absent. Thesame occurs to victims of bullying who in one way or the other,relate certain people with the assaults they received from theaggressors. For instance, a sixth-grade boy trained in an environmentof bullies will always see the same bullies in a region that resemblethe previous situation they were being assaulted. These kinds ofrelational adaptation do not just stop in early childhood, but itextends all the way into adulthood as the individual matures tobecome a full grown human being. Their brains will develop intobelieving certain superstitious events to imagine that they are asign of pain or severe lack and these changes the way they develop.The effect of this is always an emotional breakdown, or some otherpeople suffer from mental problems such as panic attacks amongothers. Medical issues such as headaches and stomach upsets are as aresult of constant violence while in school for many victims.
Adjustingto school due to increased anxiety and fear
Cruciallythe effort made by students while growing up depends on theirpsychological and emotional adjustments to college life.Interestingly, when these students get exposed to higher degrees ofcorporal punishment and bullying behaviors from their teachers andpeers respectively, they will always find it hard to adjust to theschool surrounding. The reason behind this global challenge is ahigher level of anxiety and fear built on them for experiencing theforms of aggression and violence in the school. A good number of themwill find it hard to remain in school, and it is for this reason thata significant number of them drop out of schools especially thosefrom developing nations (Delprato et al., 2017).
Lackof Performance in Math and other Logical Subjects
Otherthan dropping out of schools children and adolescents find it quitechallenging to handle technical subjects because of being victimizedor assaulted psychologically as well as physically. According toDelprato et al. (2017), in a study conducted among Latin Americansixth grade students, it was found that bullied students scoredsignificantly lower on their scales of non-cognitive scores. In math,the whole sample of bullied students scored 10.82-10.00 points lessthan their non-victims. The same score reductions were noted forother subjects such as reading in the same sample of students. Whenit came to overall learning outcomes, the researchers indicated thatthere was a significant reduction of about 11%, which is quite small.They also advised that school recruitment and retention programsshould encourage taking in female teachers because they are useful inhandling most of these learning discrepancies across the studentpopulation.
AvoidSchool and Dropping Out Exclusively
Peoplemature up in varied ways depending on the forms of regulations andintegration measures that govern their everyday life from childhoodall the way to adulthood. While this is true, the school is one ofthe centers of learning that helps to develop individuals to beholistic thinkers in the society and the world as a whole. Althoughthis is the case, the school as reported by UNESCO (2017), has becomea hub of antisocial behavior against kids when in the first place itis supposed to protect the same kids. The evidence goes on further toindicate that the LGBTs (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgenderstudents) suffer the highest type of school violence and bullying ata rate of 16% to 85 percent and this numbers are almost five timesgreater than what is reported among the non-LGBT students. Apart fromthat, cyber bullying stands at a rate of 5% to 21% among children andeven adolescents in most industrial countries in the world, and thishappens under the watch of both the parents, teachers and bothgovernment agencies as well as nongovernmental representatives. Itbegs the question as to, where did the rain start beating the policymakers and all the other stakeholders because the trend is hittinghard the rate at which children and adolescents drop out of school.
Onthe other hand, girls are not left out concerning sexual violencebecause they experience it from teachers and peers they are leftwith, while in school. The fear of stigmatization or being believedrises with each passing day. They mature up believing that they werethe main reasons while the attacks took place when in reality theywere just victims of circumstances. As they grow up and develop intoreal adults, they get to learn the mistakes they made and how theyshould have responded to such conditions, when the effects arealready visible and irreversible. Some contract sexually transmittedillnesses others run into post-traumatic stress disorders and evendepression while others make their lives short through suicideattempts.
Bullyingand school violence have been attributed to one positive effectregarding the development of kids into adulthood. Among other things,this positive effect transcends all gender in school environments. Itis about defense development of children as they mature mentally intoadolescents and early adulthood. According to Jenkins et al. (2017),when victims of bullying regroup so as to try to defend one anotherthey develop cognitive capacities to persevere and become motivatedto withstand all forms of oppression. Defending is both associatedwith high levels of executive functioning such as self-monitoring,emotional directive as well as inhibition and also high socialstanding (Jenkins et al., 2017).
Defendersshow: an influential theory of the mind they also demonstrate strongplanning and deceptive skills which are a good effect of bullying andschool violence. Most importantly, students who engage in thisactivity are viewed to have that ability to control their emotionsand are associated with unyielding problem-solving capacities unlikethe victims and the perpetrators. When they try to protect theirpeers from more embarrassment, they become good mediators, but theyalso run the risk of being viewed as targets by the aggressors aswell (Jenkins et al., 2017). They are said to be strong in characteras they develop into adulthood because they can link both ends of thebullying divide and find a lasting solution.
Notably,bullying and school violence are evident to impact the development ofkids through adulthood in the negative sense. They are viewed toresult in low levels of self-esteem among adolescents, high degreesof anxiety and depressions. They are also associated with high schooldropouts due to poor decision-making ability in children andadolescents. Besides, they are linked to poor scores in learningoutcomes as well as in relevant subjects such as math and reading.The most noted adverse effect of this trend is death through suicideamong adolescents and even young adults at an alarming rate. The onlypositive outcome associated with bullying and school violence amongteenagers is the ability to develop defenders into becoming goodproblem solvers and mediators between victims and perpetrators.
Delprato,M., Akyeampong, K., & Dunne, M.(2017). The impact of bullying onstudents’ learning in Latin America A matching approach for 15countries. International Journal of Educational Development,52, 37-57. Doi:/dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.10.002.
Jenkins,L.N., Demaray, K.M., & Tennant, J. (2017). Social, emotional, andcognitive factors associated with bullying. SchoolPsychology Review,46(1): 42-64.
Klomek,A.B., Kleinman, M., Altschuler, E., Marrocco, F., Amakawa, L., Gould,M.S. (2011). High school bullying as a risk for later depression andsuicidality. Suicideand Life-Threatening Behavior, 41(5), 501-516. doi:10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00046.x
UNESCO(2017). School violence and bullying: Global status report.UNESCO.Org. Retrieved from:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002469/246970e.pdf