Differencesin Food Prices, Population, and Well-being
Extremepopulation growth affects economic growth negatively, andunderdeveloped countries ought to initiate mechanisms of lesseningthese natural increases. Population increase is the main featureleading to underdevelopment, and thus need for population control tocurb this issue. This essay will look at the differences betweenMalthus, Smith and Mark’s understanding on food production, prices,population and well-being.
Malthus,Smith and Mark’s understanding on influence of food production andfood prices on human population patterns and well-being.
Malthusgives two major prepositions in connection to this topic. One is thatsubsistence increase in an arithmetic ration whereas uncheckedpopulation increase in an arithmetic ratio. These two propositionsconstitute the standard of population that he says, causes lowadvancement of the humankind towards happiness. He based hisprinciple on a natural ruling, the propensity of all energetic lifeto surge past the available means for its existence. This law is alsobacked by the standard of necessity1.It confines that progression within particular borders and maintainsit to the extent of the means of sustenance. He also supports hisprinciple of diminishing earnings that implies that the production offood is destined to lag behind increase in population. His argumentis that, apart from food production, all the other natural resourceslag population growth2.Marxist on the other hand disagrees with Malthus and bring out hisown principle of reserve army of labor also known as relative surpluspopulation. The accretion and growth of assets establishes themotivating factor of entrepreneurship and operates only whencapitalists can function within a profit. Accumulation occurs whenentrepreneurs change part of their extra value into capital, implyinga rise in demand labor. Increase in demand generates increase inprice. Resulting population growth leads to labor supplies that arehigher than the demand, thus giving workforces a minimum sustenancelevel. However, by controlling their numbers, employees can enhancetheir condition. Smith has his own principle of division of labor,where he argues that everyone is rich or poor with regard to thedegree that they can enjoy the basics, amusements, and conveniencesof human life3.After this division has taken place, a small part of this can supplya man with what he needs. The real price of everything to a personwho wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of getting it. Labortherefore, which is determined by population, is the real standard bywhich the values of all commodities can always be estimated.
Howeach author accounts for the existence of poverty?
Accordingto Malthus, the natural law of necessity within the human speciesfunctions via different checks, which are under two key classes. Oneis the preventive checks that control fertility and positive checksthat heighten mortality. In this, poverty is one of the factors thatcontributes to increased deaths amongst individuals in a population.The continuous procedure of the population principle that bringsabout the act of the necessity law. The result of this is that, muchof the misery and poverty observed in the lower class individuals inevery country reiterates letdowns in the efforts of higher class todismiss them. When the powers of population and production are notequal, then misery comes in and poverty is created. Marks uses theprinciple of accumulation to explain the existence of poverty insociety. He says that there is constant capital which comprisesproduction value, and variable capital which comprises value of laborpower. The assumption and accretion of extra value in the hands ofcapitalists results in insufficiency of the ones acting as the sourceof the surplus value. This is due to the fact that, it causesunemployment that leads to comparative additional population whosecomposition and size varies with the tangible requirements of capitalaccretion. Smith on the other hand based his argument on the idea ofa dynamic, wealth-creating capitalism. In his inquiry into the natureand causes of the wealthy of nations, he draws a compelling pictureof the market economy expanding in a way that distributes thebenefits of ‘opulence’ through all the rank in society. Hedefines away the problem of poverty by taking a skeptical, antmaterialistic position towards wealth. He says further that heaccepts with equal joy and satisfaction, whatever fortune befallshim. Riches or poverty, pleasure or pain, health or sickness are allalike. Smith characterizes the distress of the poor in terms ofpsychic pain4.
Mark’sanalysis of the California’s agricultural history would be that thecapitalist transformation of the process of production appears as ameans of enslaving, exploiting and impoverishing the worker. Thesocial combination of the labor process appears as an organizedsuppression of his individual freedom, vitality and autonomy. Thedispersal of the rural workers over large areas breaks their power ofresistance, while concentration increases that of the urban workers[ CITATION Ada15 l 1033 ].Alldevelopment in entrepreneurial agriculture is an advancement that isin the art of robing the employee as well as the soil. As a nationensues from the large-scale industry as the foundation of its growth,like the U.S., the quicker the destruction process. The increasedscale of industrial establishment is the starting point of a morecomprehensive organization of the collective labor of many people.The masses of capital welded together overnight by centralizationreproduce and multiply as the others do. They thus become new andpowerful levers of social accumulation.
Thecapitalists that are formed in the normal course of accumulationserve above all as vehicles for the exploitation of new inventions,discoveries and industrial improvements. The absolute reduction inthe demand for labor which necessarily follows from this is thehigher degree to which the capitals undergoing this process ofrenewal are amassed together5.The transitional pauses in which accretion works as modest productionextension, on some technical forms. An enhanced accrual of the totalcapital, faster in a continually rising advancement, is necessary toengage an extra number of workers, or the version of the continuoustransformation of old assets, to retain employed those who arehardworking. The cumulative buildup and centralization also becomesin turn, a basis of fresh alterations in capital composition. Thecapitalist accumulation itself constantly produces a relativelyredundant working population. This means, a people who aresuperfluous to capital’s average requirements for its ownvalorization, and is therefore a surplus population.
Modernindustry’s whole form of motion is dependent on the constanttransformation of a part of the working population into unemployed orsemi-unemployed. When the periodicity becomes consolidated, even thepolitical economy sees that the production of a surplus population isa necessary condition for modern industry6.
Elwell, Frank. Malthus Social Theory. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001.
Malthus, Thomus Robert. An Essay on The Principle of Population. United States: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1976.
Marx, Karl. Karl Marx CAPITAL. A CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. Toronto: Penguin Books Limited, 1976.
Romero, Adam. Commercializing Chemical Wafare. Berkeley: Carlifornia University, 2015.
Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations. Indianapolis: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
1 Elwell, Frank. Malthus Social Theory. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001.
2 Romero, Adam. Commercializing Chemical Wafare. Berkeley: Carlifornia University, 2015.
3 Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth of Nations. Indianapolis: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
4 Malthus, Thomus Robert. An Essay on The Principle of Population. United States: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1976.
5 Marx, Karl. Karl Marx CAPITAL. A CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. Toronto: Penguin Books Limited, 1976.