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The issue of adherence to HIV medication, particularly among theyouth, is aptly exemplified by the client whom the author spenttracking down when working at the HIV/AIDS Center. The issue ofadherence is an important one for HIV-infected youth due to the 50%increase in HIV-related deaths in youths aged 10 to 24 in the periodbetween 2005 and 2012 [CITATION Rev l 1033 ]. Optimal adherence isvital for the attainment of an undetectably low viral load, a sign ofgood health. The most affected youth as observed by the author arethose that come from special populations such as the MSM communitydue to the extra burden of stigmatization and other barriers. Thisissue is further compounded when the MSM come from traditionallymarginalized and minority communities such as African-American andLatino ethnicities [ CITATION Kim14 l 1033 ].

In this regard, therefore, various effective intervention measureshave to be formulated to enhance the adherence of youth toAntiretroviral Therapy, especially those in minority and marginalizedcommunities. Shaw and Amico [CITATION Sha16
l 1033 ] howeverfailed to find any correlation between adherence rates and readilyobservable patient traits and individual demographic factors. Theyinstead discovered that psychosocial factors had the greatestcorrelation to nonadherence. In this regard, they recommendintervention strategies that entail peer support, self-monitoring,telephone follow-up, and caregiver and patient education. Some of themost effective strategies are those that further encompass amulticomponent approach [ CITATION Rob14 l 1033 ]. Uniquedevelopmental needs of youths may necessitate tailored adherenceinterventions. Other factors that also need to be considered are theinclusion of family and peers and accessibility of location where ARTtreatment is provided [CITATION Che l 1033 ]. However, the field ofadherence intervention is still evolving, and there is not currentgold standard for improvement of adherence in youth.


Chenneville, T. (2017). Antiretroviral Medication Adherence and Disease Management in Pediatric Populations. In T. Chenneville (Ed.), A Clinical Guide to Pediatric HIV: Bridging the Gaps Between Research and Practice (p. 163). Springer.

Kim, S.-H., Gerver, S. M., Fidler, S., &amp Ward, H. (2014). Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adolescents living with HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS, 28(13), 1945. doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000316

Lall, P., Lim, S. H., Khairuddin, N., &amp Kamarulzaman, A. (2015). Review: An urgent need for research on factors impacting adherence to and retention in care among HIV-positive youth and adolescents from key populations. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 18(2Suppl 1). doi:10.7448/IAS.18.2.19393

Robbins, R. N., Spector, A. Y., Mellins, C. A., &amp Remien, R. H. (2014). Optimizing ART Adherence: Update for HIV Treatment and Prevention. Current HIV/AIDS Report, 11(4), 423. doi:10.1007/s11904-014-0229-5

Shaw, S. M., &amp Amico, K. r. (2016). Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Enhancing Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults 1324 Years of Age: A Review of the Evidence Base. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 72(4). doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000977