Discussion Questions

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Nameof student:

Nameof institution:

Althoughmany people use these words interchangeably, tests and assessments donot refer to the same thing. Tests are tasks given to the learner todetermine their level of knowledge about a particular subject. Anassessment is a process of documenting the degree of a student’sknowledge to help the make improvements in the learning process. Thebest way to use assessments in the middle and high school classroomsis making use of formative and summative assessments. A teacher canuse formative assessments to analyze the progress of the students’comprehension during the teaching and learning process. For itsmaximum effectiveness, the teacher should ensure a high level ofstudent involvement for students to assess themselves and help othersto learn more quickly. Summative assessments have a defined date andtime and assist the teachers in finding out how much a student knowsat that point. These assessments include standardized tests that areaccountability measures for grading purposes (McMillan,2013).

Teachersshould consider practicality and efficiency in selecting assessments.These two factors lead to the creation of an evaluation that meetsthe teacher’s objective of analyzing the students’ level ofknowledge using a process that is inexpensive and easy to execute.The assessment should have a level of complexity that matches theability of the students to make it an effective measure of studentknowledge. It should also be easy to administer to save time, energy,and resources. Reliability is important, as it will give the teacheradministering it accurate, consistent, and dependable information.Validity in an assessment refers to how well it measures theparameters that an instructor would be interested in knowing. It isimportant as it helps one know how suitable the evaluation is for aparticular situation (McClure, Sonak, and Suen, 2014).


McClure,J. R., Sonak, B., &amp Suen, H. K. (2014). Concept map assessment ofclassroom learning: Reliability, validity, and logisticalpracticality.&nbspJournalof research in science teaching,&nbsp36(4),475-492.

McMillan,J. H. (2013).&nbspClassroomAssessment: Pearson New International Edition: Principles andPractice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction.Pearson Higher Ed.Topof Form

Discussion questions

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Accordingto Hess Law, which states that the enthalpy of chemical reactionequals to the difference of the enthalpy of the products and thereactants enthalpy. Due to this state being a state function then thechange will be similar regardless of the path followed.

Step1: formation of sodium salt and water.

NaOH(aq)+ HCl (aq)→ NaCl (aq)+ H2O(l) ΔHrxn

Step2: reacting the products of reaction one with ammonia

NaCl(aq)+ NH3(aq)+ H2O(l)→ NaOH(aq)+ NH4Cl(aq) ΔHrxn= +0.34708kJ

Overallreaction overall reaction and expected heat of the reaction

HCl(aq)+ NH3 (aq)→ NH4Cl (aq) ΔHrxn= -3.01892kJ

Theexpected value is -3.01892kJ while the experimental value is -2.6162this is probably because of energy losses through heat loss,interference from the surrounding or absorption of heat by theStyrofoam cup.

Therecognition of exothermic and endothermic reactions, the deductionsare made basing the facts on the energy changes. When the energychange is negative, the deductions are that the reaction isexothermic as energy is released and when the energy change ispositive the reaction is endothermic as energy is absorbed. In thereaction in the experiment, the reactions are as follows:

1.NaOH (aq)+ HCl (aq)→ NaCl (aq)+ H2O (l) ΔHrxn= -3.366kJ

Thereaction is exothermic, and thus the heat of neutralization and hencethe enthalpy is negative.

2.NaOH(aq)+ NH4Cl(aq)→ NaCl(aq)+ NH3(aq)+ H2O(l) ΔHrxn = -0.34708kJ

Thereaction is exothermic, and thus the heat of neutralization which isequal to the enthalpy is negative.

3.HCl (aq)+ NH3 (aq)→ NH4Cl (aq)ΔHrxn = -2.6162kJ

Thereaction is exothermic, and thus the heat of neutralization and hencethe enthalpy is negative

4.The thermal solution of ammonium nitrate is positive, and hence it isEndothermic.

ΔHrxn= 1.36653kJ

AStyrofoam cup is a good insulator thus minimizing loss of heat to thesurrounding and heat gain from the surrounding. It Increases thedegree of accuracy and confidence level of the values and figuresobtained in the reaction (Hunter et.al, 2016). On the other hand, theuse of a glass beaker allows the exchange of heat between the systemand the surrounding, and thus the values obtained will be prone toerrors due to this interference.

Thereaction equation of hydrochloric acid and magnesium is

2HCl(aq)+Mg (s) MgCl2(aq) +H2(g)

Hydrogengas is released because of the reaction.

Thedifference of using magnesium strips instead of magnesium powderwould be massive as the reaction will be slower when magnesium stripsare used because of the small surface area exposed for the reactionto occur (Hunter et.al, 2016). The heat of reaction will be lowersince the temperature difference will be lower compared to whenmagnesium powder.


Hunter,A. D., Williams, T. R., Zarzyczny, B. M., Bottesch, H. W., Dolan, S.A., McDowell, K. A., … &amp Mahler, C. H. (2016). Correlationsamong 31P NMR Coordination Chemical Shifts, Ru–P Bond Distances,and Enthalpies of Reaction in Cp′ Ru (PR3)2Cl Complexes (Cp′=η5-C5H5,η5-C5Me5PR3= PMe3, PPhMe2, PPh2Me, PPh3, PEt3, P nBu3).&nbspOrganometallics,&nbsp35(16),2701-2706.