Disease Process

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Disease Process

Etiology/Risk Factors

Hypertension

Acute form of hypertension can result in aortic dissection, preeclampsia and eclampsia among expectant mothers, and pulmonary edema.

Chronic form of hypertension leads to arteriosclerosis, and heart and blood vessel disorders such as congenital heart disease and valve disease.

Risk factors include tobacco and alcohol use, age, stress, obesity, physical in activity, excessive salt intake, race, and family history.

Complications

-Stroke or heart attack.

-Cognitive impairment.

-Aneurysm.

– Metabolic syndrome which makes a person susceptible to diabetes.

-Weakening and narrowing of kidneys’ blood vessels.

-Heart failure.

-Eyes’ blood vessels narrow, thicken or tear causing vision loss.

-Brain swelling

(&quotWhat Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? – NHLBI, NIH,&quot 2015)

Pathophysiology

Systematic vascular resistance and cardiac output result in blood pressure. The high cardiac output or systematic vascular resistance is sometimes present among arterial hypertension patients. An increase in the stimulation of the alpha-adrenoceptor and release of the endothelins peptides may result in the elevation of vascular tone. Vasoconstriction is the end pathway and occurs when vascular smooth muscle experiences high cytosolic calcium.

Body Systems Impacted

Angina and arrhythmias arise from hypertension affecting the circulatory system. Damage to the eyes’ blood vessels leads to retinopathy. Transient ischemic attack occurs when the brain receives less oxygenated blood hindering its functioning. Sexual dysfunction arises when the penis does not receive enough blood to achieve an erection. Impotence and erectile dysfunction are consequences of sexual dysfunction.

Nursing Domains

-Monitor a patient’s blood pressure.

-Advocate for diet change as lifestyle is one of the causes of hypertension.

-Drug therapy

-Emotional support which offers stress relief to the patient.

-Encourage exercise and maintenance of a healthy weight.

Clinical Manifestations

-Irregular heart beat

-Blood in urine

-Chest pain

-Fatigue

-Shortness of breath

-Nausea

-Nosebleeds

Reference

What Are the Signs, Symptoms, andComplications of High Blood Pressure? – NHLBI, NIH. (2015, September10). Retrieved fromhttps://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbp/signs