Dissertation Prospectus

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DissertationProspectus

AnExploration of Implementation and Instructional Practices betweenNational Board and Non-National Board Certified Career and TechnicalEducation Teachers

Submittedby

February22, 2017

Prospectus Instructions:

  1. Read the entire Prospectus Template to understand the requirements for writing your Prospectus. Each section contains a narrative overview of what should be included in the section and a table with criteria required for each section. These criteria will be used to assess the prospectus for overall quality and feasibility of the proposed research study.

  2. As you draft each section, delete the narrative instructions and insert your work related to that section. Use the criteria table for each section to ensure that you address the requirements for that particular section. Do not delete/remove the criteria table as this is used by you and your Committee to evaluate your prospectus.

  3. Prior to submitting your prospectus for review by your Chair or Methodologist, use the criteria table for each section to complete a self-evaluation, inserting what you believe is your score for each listed criteria into the Learner Self-Evaluation column.

  4. The scoring for the criteria ranges from a 0-3 as defined below. Complete a realistic and thoughtful evaluation of your work. Your Chair and Methodologist will also use the criteria tables to evaluate your work.

  5. Your Prospectus should be between 6-10 pages when the tables are deleted.

Score

Assessment

0

Item Not Present

1

Item is Present, But Does Not Meet Expectations: Not all components are present. Large gaps are present in the components that leave the reader with significant questions. All items scored at 1 must be addressed by learner per reviewer comments.

2

Item Approaches Meeting Expectations, But Needs Revision: Component is present and adequate. Small gaps are present that leave the reader with questions. Any item scored at 2 must be addressed by the learner per the reviewer comments.

3

Item Meets Expectations: Component is addressed clearly and comprehensively. No gaps are present that leave the reader with questions. No changes required.

Introduction

This focus on this study will be theimplementation and instructional practices between national boardcertified and non-national board certified teachers of career andtechnical education. In 1987, the National Board for ProfessionalTeaching Standards (NBPTS) was formed. Teachers and otherstakeholders to enhance teaching proficiency and increase studentachievement created this non-profit professional organization. Thereare currently over twenty-five different subject areas available toobtain this reputable advanced certification through the NationalBoard for Certified Teachers (NBCT) including Career and TechnicalEducation (CTE). Reflective practice is a defining attribute to theBoard Standards. Accomplished teachers reflect analyticallythroughout the instructional process, using multifaceted feedback toincrease the efficacy of their teaching, strengthen its impact onstudent development, and model the significance of lifelonglearning[CITATION Gol07 p 135 l 2057 ].

Career and technical Education (CTE) has oftenbeen an area of study overlooked in the school system, per the USDepartment of Education (2011) therefore, limited amount of researchhas been dedicated to determining best practices of teachingstrategies. It is essential that Career and technical educatorsincorporate appropriate instructive practices for providing youngpeople with the academic, technical, and employability skills andknowledge to pursue postsecondary training or higher education andenter a career field prepared for ongoing learning (Partnership for21st Century Skills, 2009 Education, &amp National Association ofState Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2010). Dueto the lack of research on instructional practices in the area ofCTE, little is known about how the implementation and instructionalpractices of NBCT’s differ from that of non-NBCTs. The primary goalof National Board of Certified teacher’s is to provide teacherswith the tools to aide in student achievements.

The gap this research will address is the researchconducted by Espedido (2011) that provided evidence of theeffectiveness of the NCBTs in schools. The research found that NCBTsranked higher than non-NCBT on value-added measures and writtenevaluations. The National Board Certification is reported to enhancemore student professional development and achievement. Severalreforms have been formulated to highlight the best practices thatwill help improve education. Some focus on standards and curriculumwhile others emphasis on the choice of the parents and students.Nevertheless, the teacher acts as the common binding thread to allthe initiatives towards improvement of student’s performance. Amongthe main activities undertaken to promote quality teaching include:1) instructional monitoring, 2) teacher certification, and 3)quality. Policy makers have not agreed on exactly what the teachersare supposed to do to improve educational performance despite thefact that they acquiesce that teachers play a critical role ineducation[ CITATION Gli12 l 2057 ].

The National Board for Professional TeachingStandards (NBPTS) established a process through which qualityteachers could be identified. This was to be done through having ateacher certification process that is accepted nationally. This isbecause on average, students from NCBT teachers proved to scorehigher than those from non-NBCTs. Nevertheless, while it is true thatthere exists a gap between non-NBCTs and NBCT teachers, research onthe differences in implementation of instructional practices forcareer and technical education between the two types of teachers inminimal.

The intent of this qualitative exploratoryresearch study will be to explore the implementation andinstructional practices between National Board and Non-National BoardCertified Career and Technical Education Teachers.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

This section briefly overviews the research focus or problem, why this study is worth conducting, and how this study will be completed.

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

  1. Dissertation topic is introduced.

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3

  1. Describes how the study extends prior research or fills a “need” or “defined gap” from current literature.

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2

NOTE: This Introduction section elaborates on Point #1(the Topic) from the 10 Strategic Points. This Introduction section provides the foundation for the Introduction section in Chapter 1 of the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

This section is acceptable.

Background of the Problem

There is a need to explore implementation andinstructional practices between National Board and Non-National BoardCertified Career and Technical education teachers. Strobel (2011)affirmed that there is a lack of research on instructional practicesin the area of Career and Technical Education (CTE) and little isknown about how National Board Certified Teachers instructionalpractices increase student achievement. There is consensus in theteacher education literature that a strong knowledge of the subjecttaught is a core component of teacher competence (American Council onEducation, 1999 National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). Withinthe past few years, CTE programs has been advocated by statepolicymakers, legislators, and is on the educational policy agendafor Governors because students are recognizing the connection andrelevance of career advancement opportunities and CTE programs. Thereis also an increased projection in skilled occupations requiringtechnical or a credential beyond a high school diploma (Zinth, 2013).Teachers have to prepare students for career readiness by providingdiversified planning of instructional material, effective classroommanagement skills, role modeling positive social interactions andincorporating core content standards.

Zinth (2013) noted that Virgina was the firststate to recognize the distinction between CTE courses and assementand identifing the importance of incorporating higher level statestandards. These standards eventually became policy requiringlicensure teacher to receive further professional developmenttrainings in instructional methods. This training facilitates thestudents ability to pass end of course assessments, and prepare forreal-world experiences Kentucky legislation followed suit. CTEteacher that have the real-world know-how will better equip studentsfor the workforce. A positive relationship between statecertification, teacher quality, and its direct effect on studentachievement in a given subject area is reflected in this study.Higher student performance is often associated with superior teacherqualifications at the secondary level (Baumert,Kunter, Blum, &amp Brumner, 2010). These characteristics areall components within the Goe’s Teacher Quality Model (See Figure1). CTE once known as vocational education has adopted newpolicies and the developments are shaping the future of the field. Aseries of reports from the U.S. organizations, including: 1) TheDepartment of Education, 2) Council of Chief State School Officers,and 3) The American Institutes of Research’s Center on GreatTeachers and Leaders, argue the critical importance of teacherquality within CTE. To date, more than 4,000 teachers have achievedNational Board Certification in CTE and it is assumed thatthere are different implementation and instructional practicesbetween NBCT and non-NBCT actual differences were not measured(Strobel 2011).

The ability of a teacher to provide qualityeducation to the students lies in their qualifications, skills, andknowledge that they acquire in the course of training. To be apreferred teacher over the others, there is a need to pass throughmyriads of tasks that prepare an individual psychologically,emotionally and at times, physically. The specific people that aretrained to offer services to learners are in a position to highlighttheir prowess in the specific field. Imperatively, the NBPTS allowsteachers to use their talents such that they can apply innovativeways to ensure learners can grasp the crucial information in varioussubjects (National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 2016).Through this approach, learners feel welcomed in an institution andthey look forward to encounter the subsequent parts of their studies.Additionally, teachers that are certified by the board show theirdedication to the profession since they decipher that it is alifetime career. Since they have futuristic goals in the institution,they seek to mark an improvement over time, and this is a positiveapproach towards empowerment of the learners. On the other hand, theindividuals that are not certified by the board may not show theresilience and commitment to the profession since they are only inthe teaching career until they find an opportunity that suits theirvision. It is imperative to consider the gap that exists between thenational board certified teachers vis-à-vis the non-licensedinstructors as this could affect the standards of learning.

The gap this research will address is the researchconducted by Espedido (2011) that provided evidence of theeffectiveness of the NCBTs in schools. The research found that NCBTsranked higher than non-NCBT on value-added measures and writtenevaluations. The National Board Certification is reported to enhancemore student professional development and achievement. Severalreforms have been formulated to highlight the best practices thatwill help improve education. Some focus on standards and curriculumwhile others emphasis on the choice of the parents and students.Nevertheless, the teacher acts as the common binding thread to allthe initiatives towards improvement of student’s performance.

The purpose of this qualitative exploratoryresearch study will be to explore the implementation andinstructional practices between National Board and Non-National BoardCertified Career and Technical Education Teachers.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Background of the Problem

The background section explains both the history of and the present state of the problem and research focus.

The recommended length for this section is two-three paragraphs.

  1. Identifies the “need,” or “defined gap” that will lead to the research problem statement in a following section. Citations from the literature in the last 5 years describe the problem as a current “need” or “gap” for further research.

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2

  1. Discusses how the “need” or “defined gap” has evolved historically into the current problem or opportunity to be addressed by the proposed study.

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3

  1. ALIGNMENT: The problem statement for the dissertation will be developed from and justified by the “need” or “defined gap” that is described in this section and supported by the Literature.

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3

NOTE: This Background of the Problem section uses information from Point #2 (Literature Review) in the 10 Strategic Points. This Background of the Problem section becomes the Background of the Study in Chapter 1 in the Proposal. It is then expanded to develop the comprehensive Background to the Problem section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review) in the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as, uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

This section is acceptable.

Conceptual Framework andReview of the Literature/Themes

Conceptual framework, the currentstudy is informed by Democratic Utilitarian Experiential Pragmatismvalues in harmony with humanism values as main platforms for theprinciples in Career and Technical Education (CTE)(Martinez, 2007, p. 2). In his framework, Martinez (2007)stated that interlacing of humanism and democratic utilitarianexperiential pragmatism constructs can only be realized if thefollowing critical questions are asked: (a) what is true (for humanexperience changes constantly) (b) what is good (c) what isvaluable to human beings and gives room for self-actualization and(d) what is right? (Democratic ideals, freedom values, justice, andself-worth). Moreover, Martinez argued that acceptance of thispragmatic humanistic view allows for exploration of fundamentalvalues that act as touchstones to guide is developing the principles.The legislative trends and historical principles play a crucial rolein Career and Technical Education to give the following values: (1)accountability, (2) accessibility, (3) learning, (4) safety (5)usefulness.

This study seeks articulation of these principlesas cornerstone for the CTE teacher re-evaluation and redesigningprograms. This will help in attracting the students and prepareindividuals who are skillful towards the increasing demands of 21stcentury and changing workforce. The comparison of these principlesfor the NBCT and non-NBCT teachers will act as the backbone for thisresearch. This is represented below.

Review of theliterature/themes. The following themes will be addressed in theliterature review:

Career and TechnicalEducation

  • Career and Technical Education involve the programs that are put in place to prepare students for the future life. This involves including the practical lessons that are required to meet the future demands in the job market. Career education concentrates on the vocations of the various students that go through the education system (Russell &amp Ryan, 2010). Technical education, on the other hand, has been designed to meet the requirements of the job market in terms of practical skills. Going through such education system brings about competitiveness of the students in the global job market. However, this type of education has received little attention in the past and hence has had little research conducted on it for improvements.

  1. National Board Certified Career and Technical Education Teachers.

  • This section concentrates on the accomplished teachers that are expected to build critical skill sets for students by providing a combination of pedagogical practice

Withreal-world application NBPTS (2015). These teachers are usuallyprepared to meet the various distinct requirements that are presentin the practical field (Russell &amp Ryan, 2010). The CTE field isnot homogenous, and hence the teachers are trained in a way that theywill tailor the instructions they are given to the students to matchthe requirements. The teachers are tailored in different fields suchas Business, Marketing, Health and Consumer Science, Engineering,Natural Resources Management, Information Technology and otherfields.

  1. Non-National Board Certified Career and Technical Education Teachers.

  • In this case, the teachers are usually qualified, and most of them have a bachelor’s degree. The nature of the teaching system is not specific in terms of the content. Teachers are not tailored, but are trained on a general basis (Russell &amp Ryan, 2010). This makes the system different in the implementation of the content. The board does not have specific rules on the manner that a course is to be delivered.

  1. Importance of Teacher’s Experience and Measurement

    • A study conducted to unveil the effect of the tutor’s experience on the students’ performance, shows that there was a positive relationship between the effectiveness of the instructor with the level of experience, which took the form of an almost linear state (Skaalvik &ampSkaalvik, 2011).

  2. Conducting Aptitude Test

    • An aptitude is applied as an important aspect in various professions as it is used to assess the character of a person, as well as predict the success or failure in a given occupation (McManus et al., 2013).

  3. Assessment of Subject Matter Knowledge in Teaching

    • Teaching entails the process of imparting knowledge to learners and developing skills, as well as altitudes. It is imperative for teachers to have high understanding of the subject matter (Baumert et al., 2010).

  4. Role of Certification and Accreditation

    • Boulet and Zanten (2014) noted that the importance of a teacher’s qualification denotes the significance of accrediting the qualified instructors as a measure of ensuring maintenance of the standards.

  5. Teacher Characteristics

    • Before heading to the classroom, teachers should demonstrate proper practices in line with expectations of the stakeholders. Regarding this, the attitude of the instructors is an important element of consideration that affects the teaching profession. Teachers should have a positive attitude to deliver well in their profession. A study conducted by Gay (2010) found that there is a positive relationship between the attitude ratings of the teachers and the academic performance of the learners.

  6. Teacher Practices

    • Teachers demonstrate varying practices regarding their profession due to the inherent differences that exists. On this note, instructors vary in their ability of instructional delivery, class management, and interactions with students. Scheeler, Budin, and Markelz (2016) conducted evidence- based practice research and found that that the combination of preparation and coursework is effective for teachers to meet the unique needs of students, which are the ultimate goal of teacher education.

  7. Planning Instructional Delivery

    • As stated by different parts of the organization, moving learners in understudy accomplishment includes numerous aspects from building an effective classroom society to conveying messages successfully with understudies and guardians (Baran, Correia, &amp Thompson, 2011).

  8. Classroom Management

    • Classroom management and administration of learners` behavior are aptitudes that educators obtain and sharpen after some time (Dreikurs, Grunwald, &amp Pepper, 2013). These aptitudes never &quotharden&quot until a teacher gains experience after a couple of years of instructing background.

  9. Interaction with Students

    • It is imperative to demonstrate ideal relationship between a student and the teacher for easier comprehension. According to Battey (2013), students spend a minimum of five hours per day with the teacher hence, the need of maintaining a good relationship between the two parties.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Theoretical Foundations and/or Conceptual Framework

This section identifies the theory(s) or model(s) that provide the foundation for the research. This section should present the theory(s) or models(s) and explain how the problem under investigation relates to the theory or model. The theory(s) or models(s) guide the research questions and justify what is being measured (variables) as well, as how those variables are related (quantitative) or the phenomena being investigated (qualitative).

Review of the Literature

This section provides a broad, balanced overview of the existing literature related to the proposed research topic. It describes the literature in related topic areas and its relevance to the proposed research topic findings, providing a short one-two sentence description of each theme/topic and identifies its relevance to the research topic supporting it with at least one citation from the literature.

The recommended length for this section is two-three paragraphs

  1. Theoretical Foundations section identifies the theory(s), model relevant to the variables (quantitative study), or phenomenon (qualitative study). This section should explain how the study topic or problem coming out of the “need” or “defined gap” in the Background to the Problem section relates to the theory(s) or model(s). (One paragraph)

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3

  1. Review of the Literature Themes/Topics section: This section lists the major themes or topics related to the research topic. It provides a short one-two sentence description of each theme/topic and identifies its relevance to the research topic supporting it with at least one citation from the literature. (One or two sentences per theme/topic).

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  1. ALIGNMENT: The Theoretical Foundations models and theories need to be related to and support the problem statement or study topic. The sections in the Review of the Literature are topical areas needed to understand the various aspects of the phenomenon (qualitative) or variables/groups (quantitative) being studied to select the design needed to address the Problem Statement to select surveys or instruments to collect information on variables/groups to define the population and sample for the study to describe components or factors that comprise the phenomenon to describe key topics related to the study topic, etc.

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2

NOTE: The two parts of this section use information from Point #2 (Literature Review) from the 10 Strategic Points. This Theoretical Foundations section is expanded upon to become the Theoretical Foundations section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review). The Theoretical Foundations section is also used to help create the Advancing Scientific Knowledge section in Chapter 1. This Review of Literature Themes/Topics section is expanded upon to provide the Review of the Literature section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review). The Review of the Literature Themes/Topics section is also used to provide the basis for the Significance of the Study section in Chapter 1.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

This section is acceptable.

ProblemStatement

It is not known how or why implementation andinstructional practices differ between National Board andNon-National Board Certified Career and technical education teachers.Current research argues that the backbone of effective and qualityteaching is derived from the implementation and instructionalpractices provided by teachers. Baran, Correla, and Thompson (2011)and Scheeler, Budin, and Markelz (2016) suggested that to improve theachievements of students is to improve teacher quality and relatedteaching skills. Despite these conclusions, there is no evidenceregarding the causes of difference in implementation andinstructional practices between NBCTs and technical educationteachers (non-NBCTs). Yet, there is evidence that learners who passthrough certified teachers perform better than those from non-NBCTsdo. According to Goldhaber, Liddle, and Theobald (2013), differentcertification programs have an impact on state reading levels. Inaddition, Goldhaber et al. indicated that there is a higher positiveimpact in reading achievement than in math when being taught bycertified teachers. A similar study conducted by Helding and Fraser(2013) suggested that science scores were also improved in Grades 8and 10 when certified teachers taught students.

It is essential to conduct a study to understandwhat role certification of a teacher plays in the performance of astudent. This will enable growth in the education sector as eachstudent adopts skills from the teacher and if the level and number ofskill knowledge and teaching skills are improved, there will be ageneral improvement in performance among students. This problem issignificant because it directly affects Career Technical Education(CTE) programs. These programs are essential to the careerdevelopment of a student. Zinth (2013) explained that a CTE teacherhas the role of ensuring the students get skills that are applicablein the real world. In addition, Zinth stated that this could be doneby the provision of the diversified planning of instructionalmaterials, effective classroom management skills, role modelingpositive social interactions, and incorporating core contentstandards. A loophole in the quality of the programs offeredundermines the quality of graduate education the sector provides.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Problem Statement

This section includes the problem statement, the population affected, and how the study will contribute to solving the problem.

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

  1. Presents a clear declarative statement that begins with either: “It is not known how or why…” (qualitative),

or

“It is not known if or to what degree/extent…” (quantitative).

2

  1. Clearly describes the magnitude and importance of the problem, supporting it with citations from the literature.

2

  1. ALIGNMENT: The problem statement is developed from and justified by the “need” or “defined gap” defined by the Literature that is discussed in the Background to the Problem section above.

2

NOTE: This section elaborates on Points #3 (Problem Statement) from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Problem Statement section in Chapter 1(and other Chapters where appropriate) in the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format

Comments from Evaluator:

This section is acceptable.

ResearchQuestion(s) and Phenomenon

Research questions. The following researchquestions will guide this qualitative exploratory case study:

1. How do implementation and instructional practices differ betweenNational Board and Non-National Board Certified Career and TechnicalEducation Teachers?

2. What strategies are in place, if any, to bring the implementationand instructional practices of National Board and Non-National BoardCertified Career and Technical Education Teachers in alignment?

In teaching, the skillsof knowledge delivery are crucial. These skills determine theunderstanding of the learner, the potential performance of thestudent and the quality of the teacher. It is worth noting thatskills of a teacher play a very critical role in the educationsector. The role of a quality teacher is to use his/her background ofknowledge along with the instructional process to ensure efficiencyin teaching, student development, and model the significance oflifelong learning (Antony &amp Goldhaber, 2007). Further, theteacher should be at the heart of career educations for learners byensuring that they receive the relevant knowledge, guidance, andmotivation needed to lead them towards successful careers (Hamilton,2015), through the implementation of learning practices thatfacilitate better learning. When effectively trained, the learnersbenefit two-fold from teachers.

Guo et al. (2012) conducted a research study thatreviewed the effectiveness of NBCTs in schools. It highlightedstudent professional development and learner performance as the majoreffects of National Board Certification. This drives this research tofocus on the disparity in the practical output of the teacher basedon certification. As elaborated in the research questions, moreemphasis is on the skills and possible discrepancies between NBCTsand non-NBCTs and technical teachers. According to the National Boardfor Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS, 2015), it plays the roleof enhancing teaching proficiency and increasing student achievement.It provides the advanced certification through the National Board forCertified Teachers (NBCT). The national board certified teachers havethe relevant knowledge on the best instructional practices that onimplementation will improve and boost student achievement. Allcertified teachers have undergone training to improve theirclassrooms skills by partaking twenty-five diverse subject areasincluding the CTE (Career and Technical Education). Thedistinguishing factor exists in the level of additional knowledge andskills on instructional practices that each teacher possesses.Besides, this study recognized two classes of teachers: NationalBoard Certified Teachers and non- National Board Certified Teachers,and technical education teachers. This classification is based oncertification however, this research tries to realize the differencein practices and whether classification has a role to play.Kalimullin (2014) recognized teaching strategies as the proficientdistinguishing factor. Even though, major key players in theeducation sector agree that substantial knowledge on the subject is avital component of a teacher’s competence (National MathematicsAdvisory Panel, 2008). In addition, Kalimullin indicated that how ateacher delivers the knowledge in a classroom also matters a lot. Ifthe NBCTs deliver the experience better that the non-NBCTs andtechnical education teachers and vice versa, it is entirely based onthe teaching practices they implement.

Phenomena. Based on this information, thephenomena being studied are the implementation practices betweenNational Board and Non-National Board Certified Career and TechnicalEducation Teachers and the instructional practices between NationalBoard and Non-National Board Certified Career and Technical EducationTeachers. The differences in these programs result in differences ineducation for teachers, which may have an impact on the quality ofteacher brought to the classroom. This is important because itsuggests that student achievement may vary based on the differenceseducation provided to the educator.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses

This section narrows the focus of the study and specifies the research questions to address the problem

statement. Based on the research questions, it describes the variables or groups and their hypothesized

relationship for a quantitative study or the phenomena under investigation for a qualitative study.

(2-3paragraphs)

  • The recommendation is a minimum of two research questions along with related hypotheses and variables is required for a quantitative study.

  • Also recommended is a minimum of two research questions along with the phenomenon description is required for a qualitative study.

  • Put the Research Questions in the appropriate Table in Appendix B based on whether the study is qualitative or quantitative.

  1. Qualitative Designs: States the research question(s) the study will answer, and describes the phenomenon to be studied.or

  2. Quantitative Designs: States the research question(s) the study will answer, identifies the variables, and presents the hypotheses.

2

  1. ALIGNMENT: The research questions are based on both the Problem Statement and Theoretical Foundation model(s) and theory(s). There should be no research questions that are not clearly aligned to the Problem Statement.

2

NOTE: This section elaborates on Points #5 (Research Questions) &amp #6 Hypothesis/variables or Phenomena) from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses section in Chapter 1 in the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

This section is acceptable.

Significanceof the Study

The aim of the study is to determine thedifferences in implementation and instructional practices betweennational board and non-national board certified teachers of careerand technical education. The findings of this research will becritical in the field of Career and Technical Education (CTE) thathas often been overlooked in the school system. CTE is a vital areaof study that prepares learners in professional world by introducingand exposing them to workplace competencies. In the problemstatement, it was noted that students taught by NBCT teachers tend toperform better than those instructed by non-NBCTs instructors.Therefore, the knowledge on the importance of National BoardCertification in CTE will be critical in encouraging more teachers toacquire the certification to enable them make academic content thatis accessible to learners by enriching it with hands-on context.

The study will contribute to the existingliterature in the field of education. The implementation andinstructional practices used by both NBCT and non-NBCT teachers willbe researched and explained in detail. In addition, the findingscould provide useful information to administrators, teachers, andother stakeholders in the field about the practices that the NationalBoard Certification brings about to the teaching environment. Thiswill improve the current body of knowledge on the best practices forNBC teachers.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Significance of the Study

This section identifies and describes the significance of the study and the implications of the potential results based on the research questions and problem statement, hypotheses, or the investigated phenomena. It describes how the research fits within and will contribute to the current literature or body of research. It describes potential practical applications from the research.

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

  1. Describes how the proposed research will contribute to the Literature, relating it specifically to other studies from the Background to the Problem and Problem Statement above.

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  1. Describes how the proposed research will contribute to the literature on the selected theory(s) or model(s) that comprise the Theoretical Foundation for the study.

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  1. Describes how addressing the problem will have practical value for the real world considering the population, community, and/or society.

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  1. ALIGNMENT:

Part 1 is based on specific studies from the Background to the Problem and Problem Statements sections above and identifies how this research will contribute to that Literature. Part 2 is based on specific model(s), theory, or variables from the Theoretical Foundations section above and identifies how this research will contribute to the knowledge on those model(s) or theory(s). Part 3 reflects on potential practical applications of the potential research findings based on Literature in the field of practice.

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NOTE: This section does not directly come from any section of the 10 Strategic Points. However, it does build on the Background to the Problem, Problem Statement, and Theoretical Foundations sections that are developed from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the Significance of the Study section in Chapter 1 in the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

This section is acceptable.

Rationale for Methodology

The most common research approaches arequantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research is based onstatistical analysis and numerical data (Mertens, 2014). Since thepurpose of the study is to examine the differences between theimplementation and instructional practices between national board andnon-national board certified teachers of career and technicaleducation, quantitative data would not be able to explain thedifferences in these practices it would only show that a differenceexists. As a result, quantitative data research is not appropriatefor the purposes of this study. Qualitative research, on the otherhand, is based on the meanings derived from the results (Mertens,2014). Because the study seeks to determine how the implementationand instructional practices differ between national board andnon-national board certified teachers of career and technicaleducation, qualitative research was appropriate for this studybecause it would be most effective at giving information regardingexperiences. It is believed that the experiences held by thoseteachers from the different programs can most effectively be shownusing their unique words and can be woven together in a narrationwithin the case study.

There are five common types of qualitativeresearch approaches: (1) ethnography (2) narrative (3)phenomenology (4) grounded theory and (5) case study (Mertens,2014). The use of ethnography requires the immersion of theresearcher in the same environment of the participants. This does notalign with the goals of the study and therefore is not appropriate.Narrative limits the sample size to a few participants and notappropriate for meeting the goals of the study, because in order todecrease bias from occurring, numerous participants are needed togain a wide range of opinions. Phenomenology focuses on themotivation of participants. This is not appropriate for this studybecause the goal is to understand the practice differences. Groundedtheory focuses on understanding the phenomenon, which is notappropriate for this study because it does not explain thedifferences. The case study, however, is appropriate because it willallow for an in-depth exploration of the instructional practices ofNBCTs and non-NBCTs (Taylor, Bogdan, &amp DeVault, 2015).

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Rationale for Methodology

This section clearly justifies the methodology the researcher plans to use for conducting the study. It argues how the methodological framework is the best approach to answer the research questions and address the problem statement. It uses citations from textbooks and articles on research methodology and/or articles on related studies.

The recommend length for this section is one paragraph and completion of Table 1 (quantitative) and/or Table 2 (qualitative) in Appendix B.

  1. Identifies the specific research methodology for the study (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed).

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  1. Justifies the research methodology to be used for the study by discussing why it is the best approach for answering the research question and addressing the problem statement. Uses citations from original sources in the literature on the specific research methodology to support the arguments. (NOTE: Books such as those by Creswell, which are secondary sources summarizing others approaches to research, may not be used as sources in this section).

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  1. ALIGNMENT: The selected methodology should be justified based on the Problem Statement and Research Questions.

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NOTE: This section elaborates on the methodology part of Point #7(Methodology and Design) in the 10 Strategic Points.

This section becomes the foundation for the Research Methodology in Chapter 1 of the Proposal and the basis for developing Chapter 3, Research Methodology.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format

Comments from the Evaluator:

This section is acceptable.

Natureof the Research Design for the Study

This nature of design for this study will be aqualitative exploratory case study. Lewis (2015) promotes fivedifferent qualitative methods, different methods that have differenttactics in relation to the research design. However, it is believedthat the case study approach is the most beneficial to thisparticular study. According to Creswell (2009) and Yin (2013), casestudies are used because they show how individuals develop. Hancockand Algozzine (2015), informative interviews, which will be used inthis study, are beneficial to the conduction of case studies. As aresult, the case study is most beneficial in this study because itwill allow the researcher to follow the development and experiencedhad by the participants. Through being able to follow these elements,it will be possible for the researcher to see evidence of the impactof the different programs. Case studies are beneficial because theyprovide information about behaviors, which can be beneficial inunderstanding the impact of these programs, allowing the researcherto understand how they are innovative and influence the educationalsystem. However, bias can occur in case studies, making themvulnerable, unless the researcher provides adequate justification forthe use. In this situation, the case study is beneficial because itallows the researcher to follow the experiences of several people indifferent situations (i.e. programs).

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

This section describes the specific research design to answer the research questions and why this approach was selected. It describes the research sample being studied as well as the process that will be used to collect the data on the sample.

The recommend length for this section is one paragraph and completion of Table 1 (quantitative) and/or Table 2 (qualitative) in Appendix B.

  1. Identifies the specific type of research design chosen for the study as well as a sample appropriate for the design. (e.g., Quantitative designs include descriptive/survey, correlational, causal-comparative, quasi-experimental, and experimental. Qualitative designs include case study, narrative, grounded theory, historical, and phenomenological.) Although other designs are possible, these are the designs GCU recommends doctoral learners use to help ensure a doable study.

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  1. Discusses why the selected design is the best design to address the research questions as compared to other designs.

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  1. ALIGNMENT: The selected Research Design should be justified based on the research questions as well as the hypotheses/variables (quantitative) or phenomenon (qualitative). It should also be aligned with the selected Research Methodology.

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NOTE: This section also elaborates on the Design part of Point #7 (Methodology and Design) in the 10 Strategic Points. This section provides the foundation for Nature of the Research Design for the Study in Chapter 1.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from Evaluator:

Please see my inserted comments.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this qualitative exploratoryresearch study will be to explore the perceptions of teachersregarding the implementation and instructional practices betweenNational Board and Non-National Board Certified Career and TechnicalEducation Teachers. The findings of this research will be critical inthe field of Career and Technical Education (CTE) that has often beenoverlooked in the school system. CTE is a vital area of study thatprepares learners in professional world by introducing and exposingthem to workplace competencies. In the problem statement, it wasnoted that students taught by NBCT teachers tend to perform betterthan those instructed by non-NBCTs instructors. Therefore, theknowledge on the importance of National Board Certification in CTEwill be critical in encouraging more teachers to acquire thecertification to enable them to make academic content that isaccessible to learners by enriching it with hands-on context.

The study will add to the body of knowledge usingMartinez (2007) Experiential Pragmatism Values in harmony withhumanism values as main platforms for the principles in Career andTechnical Education. Teacher quality is one of the factors that playa major role in influencing the success and achievement of thestudent. The study will contribute to the existing literature in thefield of education. The implementation and instructional practicesused by both NBCT and non-NBCT teachers will be researched andexplained in detail. These findings will provide useful informationto administrators, teachers, and other stakeholders in the fieldabout the practices that the National Board Certification bringsabout to the teaching environment. This will improve the current bodyof knowledge on the best practices for NBC teachers.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Purpose of the Study

The purpose statement section provides a reflection of the problem statement and identifies how the study will be accomplished. It explains how the proposed study will contribute to the field.

The recommend length for this section is one paragraph.

  1. Presents a declarative statement: “The purpose of this ___study is….” that identifies the research methodology, research design, target population, variables/groups (quantitative), or phenomena (qualitative) to be studied, and geographic location. It often includes a version of the Problem Statement as a way to define the phenomenon or variables/hypotheses.

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  1. ALIGNMENT: The Purpose Statement includes Research Methodology, Research Design, and Problem Statement from the previous sections. It also includes the target population, which should be of sufficient size to provide a large enough sample to complete the study and provide significant (quantitative) or meaningful (qualitative) results.

3

NOTE: This section elaborates on Points #8 (Purpose Statement) in the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Purpose of the Study in Chapter 1 of the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

See my inserted comment.

Sources of Data

Observations. Observations are beneficialsources of data found in case study research because they allow theparticipants to be observed in their natural states (Merriam&ampTisdell, 2016). The researcher will observe several classes toexperience the same experience as participants, as well as confirmthe use of the programs taught to teachers. The purpose of theobservation is to provide an understanding of how these programs areimplemented and how they influence the classroom. Data will becollected to determine how the programs are implemented andinstructional practices are used within the classroom. The data willbe useful in achieving the objectives of the study. The data attainedwill be nonverbal information, including the relationship heldbetween teachers and students, techniques being used, and degree ofseriousness dedicated to a particular activity. The observation datawill be used to provide the researcher with information that willallow the interview questions to be modified for appropriateness.Through this method, it is possible to formulate an understandingthat is more holistic about studying teachers hence providingaccurate and reliable information that can be used in documentationinformation from the study.

Semi-structured interviews. Yu (2016)describes qualitative interviews as conversational, allowing theresearcher and the participant to converse on a social level.According to Merriam and Tisdell (2016) interviews can be structuredwith predetermined questions, unstructured with flexible questions toresemble a conversation, and semi-structured which allows theconversation to be guided by the researcher, conducted with severalteachers in the teacher’s classroom following observation. Thisallows the researcher to change the order of the questions, as wellas explore topics of interest. Hatch (2002) argued thatsemi-structured interviews are weak in that they may not address thequestions required to meet the objectives of the study. Beforeconducting the interview, assessment on the type of questions to beasked in the interview will be paramount. The exact information thatthe interviewer wants is what will be used to design the questionsthat will be invited during the time of the interview. Whencollecting information for the research through an interview, someinterview techniques will be deployed, and these might include, faceto face, phone calls or even chatting through the various socialplatforms that are there. The information gathered through theinterview is usually of a specific answer, as already the intervieweenew the information that was required, and at the same time, theinterviewer knew what was expected.

Document Reviews. Merriam and Tisdell(2016) noted that scholarly journals and other forms of documentationreviews are beneficial to show the dedication of the researcher inusing prior research to guide current research. Again, usingdocumentation as a source, it will give some independent data that isrelated to the research that can be used as a point of reference oreven ground for comparison. Documentation will be reviewed regardingthe planned implementation of the program, such as the goals of theprograms, which can be compared against the actual implementation ofthe programs.

Data collection Procedure

Purposive samplingwill also be applied in this study since it focuses on the specificattribute that are possessed by the respondents. This samplingmethod will allow the research to select the participants of thestudy deliberately based on their ability to provide the requireddata regarding dyslexic condition and moderate learners. The motivefor using this approach is to allow the researchers acquire theinformation on the respondents’ views concerning these two classesof teachers.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Instrumentation or Sources of Data

Describes, in detail, all data collection instruments, and sources (tests, questionnaires, interviews, databases, media, etc.). Discusses the specific instrument or source to collect data for each variable or group (quantitative study). Discusses specific instrument or source to collect information to describe the phenomena being studied (qualitative study).

The recommend length for this section is one paragraph AND completion of Table 1 (quantitative) and/or Table 2 (qualitative) in Appendix B.

  1. Identifies and describes the types of data that will be collected to answer each Research Question for a qualitative study. Identifies the data that will be collected for each Variable/Group in a quantitative study.

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  1. Identifies tools, instruments, or databases to be used to collect the data (e.g., observations, interviews, questionnaires, documents, media (qualitative), standardized tests, surveys, and databases (quantitative)). For a qualitative study, identify the specific tools, instruments, or databases for each research question in a qualitative study. For a quantitative study, identify the name of the specific “validated” and “previously used in quantitative research” survey or data source to be used to collect data for each variable, providing a citation for the instrument or data source.

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  1. ALIGNMENT: Aligns with the Research Questions (qualitative) or Variables (quantitative) previously described in the Research Question(s) and Phenomena or Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Variables section above. Identifies and describes the data and data source that will be used to answer each Research Question for a qualitative study. Identifies, describes, and names the type of numerical data and specific data collection instrument or source that will be used for each variable and group in a quantitative study.

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NOTE: This section elaborates on Point #9 (Data Collection) from the 10 Strategic Points.

This information is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in the Proposal in the Nature of the Research Design for the Study section. This section provides the foundation for Instrumentation (quantitative) or Sources of Data (qualitative) section in Chapter 3.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

Please see my inserted comments.

DataCollection Procedures

The sample population of will be selected randomlyusing the probability method. This method is appropriate since thereare certain attributes that the participants must have for datacollected to be valid. The sample of the research will be made up ofthe teachers, parents, and students. Purposive sampling will also beapplied in this study since it focuses on the specific attribute thatare possessed by the respondents. This sampling method will allowthe research to select the participants of the study deliberatelybased on their ability to provide the required data regardingdyslexic condition and moderate learners. The motive for using thisapproach is to allow the researchers acquire the information on therespondents’ views concerning these two classes of teachers(Byrnes, &amp Manchón, 2014).

The primary data will be collected from theNational Board Certified and Non-National Board Certified Teachers ofcareer and technical education. These respondents will be consideredsince they have a great understanding of the topic that is beingdiscussed. As mentioned earlier, the data will be collected using aclose-ended questionnaire that will be issued through the drop-pickmethod. A Likert scale will also be merged with the questionnairethat will require the participant to respond to show their views on avariety of statement provided on a scale of 1 to 5. Thequestionnaire will be made of two sections: section A, B, and C. Thefirst section provides the instruction for filling the questionnaire.The second section will comprise general demographic questions thatseek to determine work information of the respondents. The thirdsection will be made up of Likert scale. As earlier mentioned, theaim of the Likert scale will be to determine the respondents viewconcerning certain concepts of the research topic.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Data Collection Procedures

This section details the entirety of the process used to collect the data. It describes each step of the data collection process in a way that another researcher could replicate the study.

NOTE: It is recommended that the researcher is written approval (or at the very least unofficial approval) to conduct their research study in their selected organization. Ensure the person (who is usually a school superintendent, school boards, or corporate officer) providing approval is authorized by the organization to grant approval for research. Do not assume your organization will allow you to collect data since many organization do not allow research to be completed within the organization.

The recommended length for this section is two paragraphs.

  1. Defines the target population and the expected sample size, which comprises the people or organizations being studied, as defined in the problem statement. For quantitative studies, it justifies why the target population and expected sample size (final number of people or organizations being studied for which data will be collected) is large enough to produce statistically significant results (quantitative) or meaningful results (qualitative).

  1. Provides an overview the proposed systematic procedure to collect data using the tools, instruments, or databases from the section above. Includes the steps (e.g., obtaining initial informed consent from participating organization IRB review sample selection groupings protecting rights/well-being maintaining data security sample recruitment data collection instruments and approaches field testing instruments notifying participants collecting the data, etc.) in a way another researcher can replicate the study. Steps may be provided in a list format.

  1. ALIGNMENT: Shows the steps and approach to collect data for each data source identified in the Instrumentation or Sources of Data section. Defines the sample as the set of people or organizations being studied for which data will be collected. The sample size must be correct for the type of design selected to get statistically significant (quantitative) or meaningful (qualitative) results.

NOTE: This section elaborates on Points #4 (Sample and Location) and #9 (Data Collection) in the 10 Strategic Points.

This section provides the foundation for the Data Collection Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal. In addition, it is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in Nature of the Research Design for the Study in the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

Data Analysis Procedures

After the data has been collected, the objectiveand the justification of the research will be revisited to see if thecollected data conform to them. The data will be analyzed to samplethe useful data that are not biased in any way, ten decide on theanalytical method to be used.

The consistent of the data sampled will have to beverified because the data being used were collected from differentsources and they may end up varying regarding content and results.Now qualitative analytical approach will be deployed on the data tobe used regarding the research. Assessment will then be done on tosee if the survey design information can be included in the analysisprocedure. If it is found that, it is possible then designed basedmethods will be the methods to be used. Given the fact that a largeportion of the research data was collected through the observationmethod as opposed to experiment that is controlled, then theconclusion will be avoided at all cost as this may bring aboutcausality. The results obtained from the analysis procedure will bepresented in a documented order, where the most important points willbe presented first followed by the less significant information.Presentation of the results obtained from the experiment will includecharts, table, and notes to help in the ease of which the targetedaudience will understand the results obtained (Nussbaum, 2015).

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Data Analysis Procedures

This section describes how the data were collected for each variable or group (quantitative study) or for each research question (qualitative study). It describes the type of data to be analyzed, identifying the descriptive, inferential, and/or non-statistical analyses. Demonstrates that the research analysis is aligned to the specific research design.

The recommend length for this section is one paragraph AND completion of Table 1 (quantitative) and/or Table 2 (qualitative) in Appendix B.

  1. Describes the analysis to examine each stated research question and/or hypothesis. For quantitative studies, describes the analyses including the inferential and/or descriptive statistics to be completed. For qualitative studies, describes the specific analytic approach appropriate for the Research Design and each research question to be completed. In qualitative research, the different research questions may require different approaches to doing qualitative data analysis, as well as descriptive statistics.

  1. ALIGNMENT: For qualitative studies, there is a clear and obvious alignment between each research question, data to be collected, tool or data source, as well as data analysis to understand/explain the phenomenon. For quantitative studies, there is a clear and obvious alignment between each variable, data to be collected, instrument or data source, as well as data analysis for each hypothesis.

NOTE: This section elaborates on Point #10 (Data Analysis) from the 10 Strategic Points. This section provides the foundation for Data Analysis Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

EthicalConsiderations

There is no argument, that each research projectshould observe and adhere to the ethical rules and requirements thathave been stipulated and laid down. It was because of theseexperiences from projects that have already been completed that madethe presented research to have some ethical consideration that willmake the research to be patterned.

When collecting the data from the sample group, itwill be ethical to discuss with the selected individuals on how thepublication credit of the project will be divided. This move willmake the entire participant to be aware of the exact thing that theyare supposed to do, and the extent of their acknowledgement. Thesampled individuals will be taught on how they are not to overvaluetheir contribution. Again, these minor contributors can be includedin the introductory statements for everybody that is going throughthe report to know that they too had a part in the successfulcompletion of the research.

Those that will be tasked with the role ofcollecting data from the participants should not involve themselvesin a relationship that might make the data collected to be bias. Itwill be unethical for those collecting the data to have personalattachments to the group or a person that they will be collecting thedata from. Although, there is a sampled grouped that has already beentargeted by the research, those that fall under the sampled groupshould be made aware that the research process in a voluntary one,and anybody who feels like not participating is excused.

Those that will eventually agree to go throughwith the research from the sampled group should be informed ofseveral things before data that will be used in the research iscollected from them. Some of the things that they are supposed to betold might include the reason why the research is being conducted,the procedure, which will be used to collect data from them, and alsothe duration that they are expected to participate in the research.They can exercise their right of dropping from the research at anyinstance, once the research has commenced. Foreseen factors thatmight make them change their mind about participating in the researchor even make them bias. Any benefits that might come in their waywhen they are participating in the research.

The privacy of those that have been used toconduct the research should be protected at all cost. Again, it willbe ethical to discuss the extent of confidentiality of the datacollected from the participants. Here, in detail description of howthe data collected from them will be used while protecting theirconsent.

The final consideration as far as ethics isconcerned is that the researchers of the project will have to diginto resources that deal with research ethics to know what theirethical obligations are.

Before conducting any research, it is of greatimportance to seek approval from a relevant body that deals withethical issues. The objectives and the specifics of the research willbe presented to the Institutional Review Board (IRB). The purpose ofpresenting the scope of the research to the IRB is to ascertain thatboth the rights and safety of those that will be involved with theresearch are respected and valued.

Criteria (Required Components): score 0-3

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Reviewer Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Ethical Considerations

This section discusses the potential ethical issues surrounding the research, as well as how human subjects and data will be protected. It identifies how any potential ethical issues will be addressed.

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

  1. Discusses potential ethical concerns that might occur during the data collection process.

  1. Describes how the identities of the participants in the study and data will be protected.

  1. Describes subject recruiting, informed consent and site authorization processes.

  1. ALIGNMENT: Ethical considerations are clearly aligned with, and relate directly to the specific Data Collection Procedures. This section also identifies ethical considerations related to the target population being researched and organization or location as described in the Purpose Statement section.

NOTE: This section does use information from any of the 10 Strategic Points.

This section provides the foundation for Ethical Considerations section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.

NOTE: When writing this section ensure it has a logical flow, as well as uses correct paragraph structure, sentence structure, tense, punctuation, and APA format.

Comments from the Evaluator:

References

Baker,P., Fletcher, L., Garvey, S., &amp Sweazy, L. (2015).&nbspDatadivination: Big data strategies.

Bernard,H. Russell, and Ryan, Gery W. (2010). Analyzing qualitative data:Systematic approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Boyatzis,R.E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysisand code development. Thousand Oaks, London, &amp New Delhi: SAGEPublxications.

Baumert,J., Kunter, M., Blum, W., Brunner, M., Voss, T., Jordan, A., &ampTsai, Y. M. (2010). Teachers’ mathematical knowledge, cognitiveactivation in the classroom, and student progress.&nbspAmericanEducational Research Journal,&nbsp47(1),133-180.

Cardon,P. L. (2000). “At-risk students and technology education: Aqualitative study.”

Creswell,J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixedmethods Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Dörr,G., &ampSeel, N. M. (2014). Instructional delivery systems andmultimedia environments.&nbspInstructionalDesign.International perspectives,&nbsp2,145-181.

Desimone,L. M. (2011, March). A prim er on effective professional development.P hi D elta Kappan, 92(6), 68-71.

Dreikurs,R., Grunwald, B. B., &amp Pepper, F. C. (2013).&nbspMaintainingsanity in the classroom: Classroom management techniques.Taylor&amp Francis.

Fakeye,D. O. (2012).Teachers qualification and subject mastery as predictorsof achievement in English language in Ibarapapa division of OyoState.&nbspGlobalJournal of Human-Social Science Research,&nbsp12(3)

Ferguson,L. H., &amp Ramsay, J. D. (2010). Development of a profession: Therole of education and certification in occupational safety becoming aprofession.&nbspProfessionalsafety,&nbsp55(10),24-30

Gay,G. (2010).&nbspCulturallyresponsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice.Teachers College Press.

Gillies,R. M., &amp Boyle, M. (2010). Teachers` reflections on cooperativelearning: Issues of implementation.&nbspTeachingand teacher Education,&nbsp26(4),933-940.

Glifonea, D. J. (2012). Content Evaluation of Teaching Modules inPrinciples of Teaching Integrating the National Competency-BasedTeacher Standards. MSEUF Research Studies, 14(1), 1-2.

Goe,L., &amp Stickler, L. M. (2008). Teacher Quality and StudentAchievement: Making the Most of Recent Research. TQ Research &ampPolicy Brief.&nbspNationalComprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

Goldhaber, D., &amp Anthony, E. (2007). Can teacher quality beeffectively assessed? National board certification as a signal ofeffective teaching. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(1),134-150.

Goldhaber, D., Liddle, S., &amp Theobald, R. (2013). The gateway tothe profession: Assessing teacher preparation programs based onstudent achievement. Economics of Education Review, (34),29-44.

Guo,Y., Connor, C. M., Yang, Y., Roehrig, A. D., &amp Morrison, F. J.(2012). The effects of teacher qualification, teacher self-efficacy,and classroom practices on fifth graders` literacy outcomes.&nbspTheElementary School Journal,&nbsp113(1),3-24.

Hamilton,K. k. (2015). THE TEACHER AS PROFESSIONAL LEARNER: WHATTHE NATIONALBOARD STANDARDS SAY.&nbspTechniques: Connecting Education &ampCareers,&nbsp90(8), 14-18.

Hancock,D. R., &amp Algozzine, B. (2015). Doingcase study research: A practical guide for beginning researchers.Teachers College Press.

Harris,D. N., &amp Sass, T. R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher qualityand student achievement.&nbspJournalof public economics,&nbsp95(7),798-812.

Helding,K. A., &amp Fraser, B. J. (2013). Effectiveness of National BoardCertified (NBC) teachers in terms of classroom environment, attitudesand achievement among secondary science students. LearningEnvironments Research, 16(1), 1-21.

InByrnes, H., &amp In Manchón, R. (2014).&nbspTask-basedlanguage learning: Insights from and for L2 writing.

Kalimullin,A. M. (2014). Improvement of teachers` qualification at Kazan federaluniversity.&nbspWorldApplied Sciences Journal,&nbsp30(4),447-450.

Leedy,P. &amp Ormrod, J. (2001). Practical research: Planning and design(7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. ThousandOaks: SAGE Publications.

Lewis,S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing amongfive approaches. Healthpromotion practice,1524839915580941.

Lingo,A. S., Barton-Arwood, S. M., &amp Jolivette, K. (2011).TeachersWorking Together Improving Learning Outcomes in the InclusiveClassroom-Practical Strategies and Examples.&nbspTeachingExceptional Children,&nbsp43(3),6-13.

McManus,I. C., Dewberry, C., Nicholson, S., Dowell, J. S., Woolf, K., &ampPotts, H. W. W. (2013). Construct-level predictive validity ofeducational attainment and intellectual aptitude tests in medicalstudent selection: meta-regression of six UK longitudinal studies.

Mertens,D. M. (2014). Research and evaluation in education and psychology:Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixedmethods. Sage publications.

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NationalMathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). Foundations for success: Thefinal report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington,DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Russell,H. B., &amp Ryan, G. W. (2010). Analyzing qualitative data.Systematic approaches.

Scheeler,M. C., Budin, S., &amp Markelz, A. (2016). The Role of TeacherPreparation in Promoting Evidence-based Practice in Schools.&nbspLearningDisabilities — A Contemporary Journal,&nbsp14(2), 171-187.

Tsoukas,H., &amp Hatch, M. J. (2001). Complex thinking, complex practice:The case for a narrative approach to organizational complexity. HumanRelations, 54(8), 979-1013.

Tuckman,B. W., &amp Harper, B. E. (2012).&nbspConductingeducational research.NY. Rowman&amp Littlefield Publishers.

Vieluf,S., &ampKlieme, E. (2011).Cross-nationally comparative results onteachers’ qualification, beliefs, and practices. In&nbspExpertisein mathematics instruction&nbsp(pp.295-325). Springer US

Yin,R. K. (2013). Validity and generalization in future case studyevaluations.Evaluation,&nbsp19(3),321-332.

Yin,R. K. (2013).&nbspCasestudy research: Design and methods.Sage publications

Zinth,J. (2013). Career/Technical Education: Not Your Father`s VocationalEducation. The Progress of Education Reform. Volume 14, Number1.

AppendixA

The 10 Strategic Points for the Prospectus, Proposal, andDissertation

In the Prospectus, Proposal and Dissertation there are 10 key orstrategic points that need to be clear, simple, correct, andaligned to ensure the research is doable, valuable, andcredible. These points, which provide a guide or vision for theresearch, are present in almost any research. They are defined withinthis 10 Strategic Points document.

The 10 Strategic Points

The 10 strategy points emerge from researching literature on a topicthat is based on, or aligned with, the defined need in the literatureas well as the learner’s personal passion, future career purpose,and degree area. The 10 Strategic Points document includesthe following 10 key or strategic points that define the researchfocus and approach:

  1. Topic—Provides a board research topic area/title.

  2. Literature review—Lists primary points for four sections in the Literature Review: (a) Background of the problem/gap and the need for the study based on citations from the literature (b) Theoretical foundations (models and theories to be foundation for study) (c) Review of literature topics with key theme for each one (d) Summary.

  3. Problem statement—Describes the problem to address through the study based on defined needs or gaps from the literature.

  4. Sample and location—Identifies sample, needed sample size, and location (study phenomena with small numbers and variables/groups with large numbers).

  5. Research questions—Provides research questions to collect data to address the problem statement.

  6. Hypothesis/variables or Phenomena—Provides hypotheses with variables for each research question (quantitative) or describes the phenomena to be better understood (qualitative).

  7. Methodology and design—Describes the selected methodology and specific research design to address problem statement and research questions.

  8. Purpose statement—Provides a one-sentence statement of purpose including the problem statement, methodology, design, population sample, and location.

  9. Data collection—Describes primary instruments and sources of data to answer research questions.

  10. Data analysis—Describes the specific data analysis approaches to be used to address research questions.

The Process for Defining the Ten Strategic Points

The order of the 10 strategic points listed above reflects the orderin which the work is done by the learner. The first five strategicpoints focus primarily on defining the focus for the research basedon a clearly defined need or gap from the literature as well as thelearner’s passion, purpose and specialty area focus. First, alearner identifies a broad topic area to research for theirdissertation based on a clearly defined need or gap from theliterature—that they are interested in because it is based on theirpersonal passion, future career purpose, and degree being pursued.Second, the learner completes a review of the literature to definethe need or gap they will address, the theories and models that willprovide a foundation for their research, related topics that areneeded to demonstrate their expertise in their field, and define thekey strategic points behind their proposed research. Third, thelearner develops a clear, simple, one- sentence problem statementthat defines the problem, or gap, that will be addressed by theresearch. Fourth, the learner identifies some potential populationsamples they would have access to in order to collect the data forthe study, considering the fact the quantitative study sample sizesneed to be much larger than those for qualitative studies. Fifth, thelearner develops a set of research questions that will define thedata needed to address the problem statement.

Based on the above five strategic points the learner now defines thekey aspects of the research methodology through the last fivestrategic points. Sixth, the learner either describes the phenomenato be studied (if it is a qualitative study), or develops a set ofhypotheses (matching the research questions) that defines thevariables that will be the focus for the research (if it is aquantitative study). Seventh, the learner determines if the studywill be qualitative, quantitative or mixed research based on (a) thebest approach for the research, (b) the size of the sample they canget permission to access, (c) availability of data collection toolsand sources, and (d) time and resources to conduct the study.Additionally, they select the best design approach considering thesesame factors. Eighth, the learner develops a purpose statement byintegrating the problem statement, methodology, design, sample andlocation. Ninth, the learner identifies the data they will need tocollect to address the research questions or hypotheses and how theywill collect the data (e.g., interviews, focus groups, observations,tested and validated instruments or surveys, data bases, publicmedia, etc.) Tenth, they identify the appropriate data analysis,based on their design, to be used to answer their research questionsand address their problem statement.

Criteria for Evaluating the Ten Strategic Points: Clear, Simple,Correct and Aligned

When developing research, it is important to define the 10 strategicpoints so they are simple, clear and correct inorder to ensure anyone who reviews them will easily understand them.It is important to align all of the 10 strategic points toensure it will be possible to conduct and complete the research. Theproblem statement must come out of the literature. The researchquestions must collect the data needed to answer the problemstatement. The methodology and design must be appropriate for theproblem statement and research questions. The data collection anddata analysis must provide the information to answer the researchquestions (qualitative) or test the hypotheses (quantitative).Developing the 10 Strategic Points as a two to three-pagedocument can help ensure clarity, simplicity, correctness, andalignment of each of these ten key or strategic points in theprospectus, proposal, and dissertation. Developing these 10 strategicpoints on a two to three page document also provides an easy-to-useuse template to ensure the 10 strategic points are always worded thesame throughout the prospectus, proposal, and dissertation.

AppendixBVariables/Groups,Phenomena, and Data Analysis

Instructions: Completethe applicable table to assist with your research design. Use Table 1for quantitative studies. Use Table 2 for qualitative studies. Useboth tables for mixed method studies. This table isintended to define how you will collect and analyze the specific datafor each research questions (qualitative) and each variable(quantitative). Add additional rows to your table if needed.

Table 1

Quantitative Studies

Research Questions:

State the research Questions

Hypotheses:

State the hypotheses to match each Research question

List of Variables/Groups to Collect Data For:

Independent and Dependent Variable(s)

Instrument(s)

To collect data for each variable

Analysis Plan

Data analysis approach to (1) describe data and (2) test the hypothesis

  1. 1.

  1. 2.

3.

Table 2

Qualitative Studies

Research Questions: State the Research Questions that will be used to collect data to understand the Phenomenon being studied

Phenomenon:

Describe the overall phenomenon being studied by the research questions

Sources of Data:

Identify the specific approach (e.g., interview, observation, artifacts, documents, database, etc.) to be used to collect the data to answer each Research Question

Analysis Plan: Describe the specific approach that will be used to (1) summarize the data and (2) analyze the data.

  1. 1.

  1. 2.

3.