Dreams

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Thepurpose of this report is to explore the issue of dreams from apsychological perspective. Three peer research articles providingliterature about the concept will be used and their strengths, aswell as their critique will also be discussed.

Storlie,A.T. (2012). Presleep Self-Suggestion and Dream Recall: ASingle-Subject Study. InternationalJournal of Dream ResearchVol. 5 (2).

Thepurpose of this article was to test the hypothesis that establisheswhether dream recall can be enhanced through the use of pre-sleepself-suggestion. From the experiments carried out in the research,there are different variables that can influence conscious dreamrecall. For instance, in case the mental states favorable toremembering dreams are comparable to being asleep, lying followingfirst awakening may result in dream recall. According to the article,other testable variables may include age and gender of participants,absence or presence of a sleeping partner, and degree of reportedcomfort of sleep. The strength of this article is that it providesthe area of limitation for the research design used. This being thecase, it is possible to understand the level of validity for theinformation provided in the article. Another strength provided by thearticle is that it has utilized a simple design, which can easily beapplied. Thus, it is possible to set up the experiment forverification purposes.

Theinformation provided by the article is well organized since it ispresented in headings and subheadings, which offers the readerclarity concerning what he/she is reading without confusion. Althoughthe article focused on one dependent and independent variable, itemerged that various variables can be considered to play a part indream recall. Thus, the article seems not to be very consistent withits single variable. However, it was clear in testing the singlefactor highlighted in its hypothesis. In its closing remarks, thearticle does not vividly answer the question whether pre-sleepself-suggestion can be associated with the enhancement of dreamrecall. According to the article, more research is needed in order tohave the question answered. Although the article has providedcritical information that may be used by other individuals such aslearners and other researchers, the design that has been used in thestudy suffers from a lack of external validity. Besides, the researchdesign is susceptible to threats of internal validity, as well as theapplication of participant self-report in the collection of datasuch reports pose the threat of bias.

Graveline,M.Y. &amp Wamsley, J.E. (2015). Dreaming and Walking Cognition.TranslationalIssues in Psychological Science,Vol. 1 (1) 97-105.

Thisarticle provides evidence for the idea that dreaming is usually apostponement of waking cognition. The article argues that, at thephenomenological level, waking cognition and dreams have acombination of impulsively arising thoughts, concerns, and memories.Consequently, during the time of dreaming and wakefulness, memoriesusually mix unwarily to offer the ground for novel imaginedcircumstances. Alternatively, at the neurobiological level, thepatterns of the activity of the brain associated with imagination andmemory are active in both sleep and waking rest. The article claimsthat contrary to what has been a popular opinion, no evidence hasbeen established to indicate that the content of a dream is any moresymbolic compared to the waking cognition. The authors posit thatdespite sleep being chiefly being studied as a mechanism that tendsto enhance memory or making it stable against the impacts ofinterference, it is now evident that sleep is involved in playing anexceedingly complex role rather than just cementing experience in itsinitial form. The article has strength in that it is well organized,where there are topics that helps the audience in understanding whatto expect under the highlighted topics. This provides an easy checkof an aspect that is discussed in the article. Besides, the articlehas strength in that it uses information provided by otherresearchers in either critiquing the information or adding to thedegree of knowledge. The use of research conducted by otherindividuals is important in making the source of the informationknown. In addition, the article has provided key terms that have beenutilized, which is a strength in making the reader know what toexpect in the article. Through using the provided key words, it ispossible for the reader to search for main ideas in the article.

Indiscussing the main idea in the article, the authors have paidattention to both recent and old studies conducted on the research.This is an important idea in depicting the validity and reliabilityof the information provided in the journal. Also, the article hasprovided theoretical models and foundations that form the basis ofits argument. This being the case, the information provided in thepublication can be considered to have a strong ground. Furthermore,the authors hail from academic institutions, which make theinformation more reliable since the authors have immense knowledgeconcerning the concept being discussed. Therefore, the informationprovided in the publication can relied upon for learning or research.However, the article fails to justify its information throughhighlighting all the assumptions that it has used in reaching itsconclusions. Hence, there is a need to carry out further studies thatcan help to verify whether the conclusions provided in the articleare valid and up to what degree.

Sparrow,S.G. (2013). A New Method of Dream Analysis Congruent WithContemporary Counseling Approaches. InternationalJournal of Dream Research,Vol. 6 (1).

Accordingto this journal, dream work tends to accelerate and deepen theprocess of psychotherapy. Nevertheless, content-focused technique todream analysis is different from the goals of most non-psychodynamictreatment through handling dream as an immovable story and taking thedreamer like an inactive observer. Compared to outdatedcontent-oriented methods, a co-creative technique to dream theory andscrutiny usually arises into arrangement with different subjects inmodern therapy such as the supremacy of freedom, choice, as well aspersonal duty in existential remedies. The article points out thatco-creative dream work approaches can be perceived as supportivepractices in a broad array of contemporary therapies, and it needs tobe integrated into modern counselor training. This new approach isclearly discussed in the article and the traditional approaches. Inorder to help in the distinction amid the traditional and co-creativeapproach, the author has offered the distinctions between the twotechniques. In the process of explanation, the author uses steps onethrough five in the analysis of dream. This helps in making the newapproach be considered as vital in the modern training of counselors.The strength of the article lies in its ability to clearly provide adistinction between the traditional and the new approaches. Byoffering the different comparing points amid the methods, the readeris provided with an understanding that he/she can utilize in knowingthe two techniques. Besides, the analysis of the article isprocedural, which is important in making the audiences understand theconcept being discussed. Through the various headings provided in thearticle, it is simple for the reader to understand the concept ofdream analysis being discussed in the publication. Another strengthassociated with the article is in providing the reader withsufficient information that can help him/her fathom the new approachbeing discussed in the journal, as well as its significance.

Thearticle is important in providing background information on theconcept of dream and its analysis. Through providing the reader withinformation on the issues that are inherent in the training ofcounselors about dream work, the article prepares the reader incomprehending that the process is not an easy process and one has tobe focused. The introduction of the new approach is done in anexcellent manner since the article first lets the audiences learnabout the traditional approaches before introducing the newtechnique. Furthermore, the article is clear in making the readerbecome well-informed about the limitations of the approaches. Despiteexplaining the five steps well, the article failed in the elaborationof the expectations since the volunteer used seems to have some biasin the study since the report provided may have been out of personalfeelings and not what the experiment ought to teach. The articleshould have used several participants that were not conscious oftheir actions.

References

Graveline,M.Y. &amp Wamsley, J.E. (2015). Dreaming and Walking Cognition.TranslationalIssues in Psychological Science,Vol. 1 (1) 97-105.

Sparrow,S.G. (2013). A New Method of Dream Analysis Congruent WithContemporary Counseling Approaches. InternationalJournal of Dream Research,Vol. 6 (1).

Storlie,A.T. (2012). Presleep Self-Suggestion and Dream Recall: ASingle-Subject Study. InternationalJournal of Dream ResearchVol. 5 (2).