Drug Administration and Emergency Medications

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Question 1

The process of five rights starts with the identification of theright patient by asking for his/her name and counterchecking with therecord on the treatment sheet. The second step is the confirmation ofthe right drug and the correct amount or dosage. Afterthat, check if it is the right time for administration, andfinally confirm the route of administration(Jensen &amp Peppers, 2012). The purpose of the five rightsis to ensure that the drug is safely administered to serve itstherapeutic purpose.

Question 2

One of the methods of drug administration is through the oral route.The buccal or sublingual method relies on the capillaries in thecheeks or under the tongue. The topicalroute involves the application of the drugson the skin where they get absorbed through the epidermis and dermis.The rectal method involves placing the drugthrough the anus to the rectum where it gets absorbed by the rectalcapillaries (Olson, 2015). Finally, theparental route entails the introduction ofdrugs through the intradermal, intravenous,intrathecal, subcutaneous, and the intramuscular sites. Onetechnique can be preferred over another depending on therequired time for drug action, risks involved, economic status of thepatient among other reasons. For instance, the parenteral routeenhances the bioavailability of a drug as compared to an oral route(Jensen &amp Peppers, 2012).

Question 3

A chest tube is placed in the pleuralcavity to relieve pressure, which may be as aresult of pneumothorax or hemothorax.The tube can be connected to a suction or a Pleurovac to reducethe pressure. Others are quite smalland do not need connectors. It should always bemaintained below the patient’s chest level. The precautiontaken is to prevent accidental push or pull since such can lead torespiratory distress (Brenner &amp Safani, 2012).

Question 4

Arterial-venous lines serve in themonitoring of blood pressure, administration of parenteral drugs,obtaining blood samples for arterial and venous blood gasses,complete blood count, hematocrit, liver function tests, blood glucosetest, blood cell counts among other investigations. The lines areplaced in peripheral or specific arteries and veins dependingon the purpose (Thomas, 2013).

Question 5

The pulmonary arterial line is not atypical arterial line because it only serves one purpose ofobtaining the end-diastolic blood pressure, and it isalso inserted into a blood vessel that carries deoxygenatedblood, unlike other arteries. As such, it is more of a blood pressuremonitoring tool than an arterial line. Moreover, the line is morespecific to the pulmonary artery, which isa vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs(Jensen &amp Peppers, 2012).

Question 6

My participation in the code first entails familiarizing with thegeneral emergency and trauma protocols.Such protocols include the rapid traumaassessment, which encompasses the airway, breathing, circulation,disability, exposing and examining the patient, vital signs, comfortmeasures, history, and the inspection of the posterior surface of thepatient. Furthermore, I would understand the contents of the cart andthe team that I will work with. It would becritical to know the emergency trauma surgeons, nurses, anesthetists,physiotherapists among other professionals. Finally, the healthfacility rules and regulations of the roles of the code must beunderstood (Brenner &amp Safani, 2012).

Question 7

The code cart must have basic equipmentthat helps in cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) and medications used in emergency cases. Some of the equipmentare defibrillators, suction machines, Ambubags, oxygen banks, charts for pediatric and adult patient dosages,oxygen tanks, personal protective equipment (PPE), intravenouscatheters, nasal and oral airways among others. Some of themedications include atropine, dexamethasone, adenosine, epinephrine,Lasix, digoxin, sodium bicarbonate, Benadryl among others. Moreover,it has to be sealed and coded with colors (Olson,2015).


Brenner, M., &amp Safani, M. (2012). CriticalCare and Cardiac medicine. SanFrancisco: Current Clinical Strategies Publishing.

Jensen, S., &amp Peppers, M. (2012). Pharmacologyand medication administration for imaging technologists.St Louis: Mosby.

Olson, M. (2015). Clinicalpharmacology made ridiculously simple(4th ed.). Miami, Florida, USA: MedMaster Inc.

Thomas, J. (2013). MassCasualty Incident. Chicago: AtlantaPublishers.