Effectsof Overused Animal Feed on Human Health
Overuseof Antibiotics in Animal Feed Affects Human Health
Theoveruse of antibiotics in animal feeds has many impacts on the healthof people and may cause human infections. The increased utilizationof antibiotics in animal feed continues to threaten the health ofhuman and poses a danger to the long-term survival of humans. Themost common effect of the excessive application of antibiotics is theincreased drug resistance that poses a threat to public health(Martin, Thottathil, & Newman, 2015). Despite the threat, the useof antibiotics pose to human health, imposed a ban on reduced use ofthe drugs are less effective, and the utilization of theantibacterial in farms have continued to increase rapidly (Marshall &Levy, 2011). The findings by in this study are similar to thefindings in the study conducted by Martin, Thottathil, & Newman(2015) and Ghorbani, Ghorbani, Abedi, & Tayebi (2016).
Thefindings in the research performed by Ghorbani,Ghorbani, Abedi, & Tayebi (2016) states that most people continueto use antibacterial with the aim of increasing their farmproductivity but have inadequate knowledge on the impacts the drugshave on their health and the well-being of others (Ghorbani,Ghorbani, Abedi, & Tayebi, 2016). Theantibiotics used in the animal field are classified into variousgroups including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, glycopeptides,beta-Lactams, penicillin, and bambermycin. The antibiotics belong tothe same class have the same mode of action and thus similarresistance and target(Ghorbani, Bahjat, et al.46). According to the federal Interagency Task Force on AntimicrobialResistance, the overconsumption of the antibiotics has resulted inthe drug resistance which presents a major threat to the publichealth. In as much as major efforts are made to ensure that doctorsprescribe antibiotics carefully, little has been focused on ensuringreduced use of antibiotics in the animal farms. Also, one of the mostcommon bacterial resistances evident in hospitals is theStaphylococcusaureus(MRSA). The resistance to methicillin involved an evolution ofStaphylococcusaureusin human beings before jumping into pigs where it gained theresistance to drugs such as methicillin and tetracycline. Theresistant bacteria then got back to human beings where it is known aslivestock-associated MRSA (Ghorbani,Bahjat, et al.2016).
Thestudy conducted by McEachran et al., (2015), confirms what otherscholars have written about that overuse of antibacterial in poultryhas detrimental effects on human health of the consumers. Excessiveuse of antibiotics on poultry enhances superbugs that are drugresistant, for example, from the application of antibiotics such asCipro (McEachran et al., 2015). Most of the poultry meat consumed bypeople promotes superbug outbreaks that eventually cause diseasessuperbug growth and proliferation. The effects are contamination ofpoultry and meats risking the human health since the effects aredifficult to treat. The use of avoparcin as a food additive for farmanimals is linked with the cause of ambulatory health problems(Barton, 2000). The two primary impacts of the overuse of antibioticsin animal feeds and also in disease treatment and prevention includethe transfer of resistant genes and bacteria that are resistant totreatment drugs (Marshall, & Levy, 2011).
Antibiotic-resistantpathogens that originate from animals can cause many problems to thehealth of people (Barton, 2000). The impacts that the antibioticshave on human health are facilitated by two factors that include theway through which the antibiotics are used, and the antibioticagent`s farmers use to administer the drug (McEachran et al., 2015).The utilization of antibiotics has been associated with the transferof resistance genes and resistant bacteria from animals such aspoultry to humans (Martin, Thottathil, & Newman, 2015). Forexample, the Salmonella bacteria are easily transferred from animalsto humans through the food chain, and it has detrimental effects onthe health of individuals (Ghorbani, Ghorbani, Abedi, & Tayebi,2016).
Thefindings in the study conducted by Ghorbani, Ghorbani, Abedi, &Tayebi, (2016) concur with the findings in the studies by otherresearchers. For instance, therewas a flow of distinct Salmonella clones from the animals treatedwith antibiotics through food products, to people who gained clinicalsalmonellosis. Other studies conducted later by the National ResearchCouncil concluded that there is a strong relationship betweenantibiotic use in the animal food and evolution in the bacterialresistance both to the animals and zoonotic spread to human. Theincreased antibacterial resistances in humans arise from theinfections due to resistant microorganisms developing from non-humanconsumption of the antibiotics
Iagree with the studies’ findings that there has been a continuousincrease in the use of antibiotics in farm production by mostfarmers. The increased application of antibiotics has been mainly toboost production and preventing of the animals from disease-causingmicroorganisms. Over the past few decades, many scientific types ofresearch have been conducted involving the impacts of the overuse ofantibiotics on the health of humans. In my opinion, excessive use ofantibiotics in animal and poultry production has been associated withthe transfer of resistant genes and bacteria that are resistant totreatment drugs. The antibiotics are also known to cause chronicdisorders in humans that are resistant to drug treatment. Forexample, the use of avoparcin as a food additive for farm animals islinked with the cause of ambulatory health problems while Salmonellabacteria are easily transferred to humans via the food chain. On theother hand, there is need to develop measures of managing the alreadyresistant bacterial species this is a gap in the already existingliteratures.
Barton,M. D. (2000). Antibiotic use in animal feed and its impact on humanhealth.
Ghorbani,B., Ghorbani, M., Abedi, M., & Tayebi, M. (2016). Effect ofAntibiotics Overuse
inAnimal Food and its Link with Public Health Risk.
Marshall,B. M., & Levy, S. B. (2011). Food animals and antimicrobials:impacts on
humanhealth. Clinicalmicrobiology reviews,24(4),718-733.
Martin,M. J., Thottathil, S. E., & Newman, T. B. (2015). Antibioticsoveruse in
animalagriculture: a call to action for health care providers.
McEachran,A. D., Blackwell, B. R., Hanson, J. D., Wooten, K. J., Mayer, G. D.,Cox, S. B.,
&Smith, P. N. (2015). Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic resistancegenes: aerial transport from cattle feed yards via particulatematter. EnvironmentalHealth Perspectives (Online),123(4),337.