Primaryeducation is offered in elementary school for children aged between 4years and 14 years. Activities, materials, and games are used in anelementary school classroom to help children to develop theoperational thinking (Pagani, Fitzpatrick, & Parent, 2012). Thepaper discusses materials, games, or activities that help children togain operational thinking.
Gamesenhance interaction between children and boost their cognitiveabilities. Two individuals play the battleship game, which involveschildren visualizing a grid and sinking opponent’s ship. A child isrequired to think and figure out how to outdo the opponent. The gamerequires each child to get a board with a grid for hiding ships, andanother for monitoring the opponent (Ott & Pozzi, 2012). Thechildren fire shots in turns, and each miss or hit is marked with acolored peg. Firing shots includes calling out a letter and number onthe grid. The opponent then specifies if it is a miss or a hit. Thechild who sinks the opponent’s ship first becomes the winner.
Thebattleship game requires the child to think and plan effectively tosucceed in hiding the ships from the opponent. Centration thinking isaddressed using the game. Children are likely to pay attention to onecomponent. The focus of children is improved using the battleshipgame because it involves paying attention to their ships and theopponent. Logic, reasoning, and planning are triggered by the play(Pagani, Fitzpatrick, & Parent, 2012). The memory of the child isdeveloped and the ability to solve problems improved. Therefore, thebattleship game helps in the development of reasoning and thinkingcapabilities of the children.
Materials such as storybooks are used in an elementary schoolclassroom to enhance the imagination of children. Cognitivedevelopment is improved when imagination is triggered during thelearning process. Trans-ductive reasoning is addressed usingstorybooks. Children accomplish tasks based on previous examples andguesswork is mostly applied. Storybooks familiarize children withdiverse concepts and explain the existence or happening of activities(Athreya & Mouza, 2017). Lack of knowledge makes kids developfalse leaps. For instance, a dog can bark and then a bird flies. Achild may think that the barking of a dog causes birds to fly.
Theuse of storybooks in elementary school learning helps children todevelop deductive and inductive reasoning. Storybooks includedifferent types of reasoning that helps in convincing and changingthe thoughts of children. Knowledge acquisition is achieved whenstories are used because facts and theories are communicated to thechildren. The cognitive development of a child is influenced by thesurrounding and level of personal exposure. Logic is an aspect thatfacilitates the ability of students to argue or make claims aboutsomething. Stories open the minds of children, enable them to reason,and solve life problems effectively (Pagani, Fitzpatrick, &Parent, 2012). For instance, storybooks improve the ability ofchildren to make decisions when difficult situations face them.
Inconclusion, materials, and games are learning components used inelementary school to help in enhancing the cognitive development ofchildren. The battleship game deals with centration thinking andtriggers the development of logical reasoning. Storybooks exposechildren to diverse knowledge that help them to make decisions, andreasonable arguments. The cognitive development is achieved whenstorybooks and games are used to educate children. Education systemsneed to create a conducive learning environment to ensure thatpromotes development.
Athreya, B. H., & Mouza, C. (2017). Strategies and Tools forLearning to Think. In Thinking Skills for the Digital Generation(pp. 123-144). Springer International Publishing.
Ott, M., & Pozzi, F. (2012). Digital games as creativity enablersfor children. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(10),1011-1019.
Pagani, L. S., Fitzpatrick, C., & Parent, S. (2012). Relatingkindergarten attention to subsequent developmental pathways ofclassroom engagement in elementary school. Journal of abnormalchild psychology, 40(5), 715-725.