EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 13
Employersunderstand the significance of employee motivation as the key toincreased productivity, good performance, and maintenance of goodoffice culture. As a result, organization irrespective of size andindustry, endeavor to form a positive and strong working relationshipwith the employees. Nevertheless, employees possess differentcompeting needs that are ignited by different motivational factors.For instance, some workers concentrate on security or achievementswhile others are motivated by rewards which are the indication thatit is important for the organizational managers to understand thefactors that really motivate the employees in an effort to enhanceorganization performance. Employee motivation is one of the bestways of building good management in companies because meetingindividual needs translate into job satisfaction which is directlylinked to low absenteeism, low turnover, and high performance(Sachdeva& Sachdeva, 2016).It is true that the relationship between job performance and employeemotivation has been studied in the past, but the correlations betweenthese two aspects were not established. Therefore, this paperendeavors to provide useful insights and information on howmotivating employees intrinsically and extrinsically increasesemployee job performance.
Employeemotivation is intrinsic and extrinsic drive intended to use relevantactions and efforts towards employee work-related activities(Sachdeva& Sachdeva, 2016).Therefore, employee motivation works as an entity that can be used bythe employers or managers to compel the employees to action anindication that the manager ought to motivate the employees torealize the desirable outcomes in the organization. According toCaillier(2014) employee motivation starts with recognizing the fact that theemployees are the essential assets in the organization by placingthem in working environments that truly meets the basic emotionalneeds to comprehend, bond, acquire and defend their needs. A lot ofresearch have been done on the topic of motivation and have beeninfluential on how people understand the principle of employeemotivation, measures of motivation, ways of encouraging motivationamong the employees, and how to motivate the employees. Fernandez andMoldogaziev (2013) indicate that employee empowerment and motivationworks by improving performance, innovativeness, organizationalcommitment, and job satisfaction. Similarly, Caillier (2014) agreeswith Fernandez’s and Moldogaziev’s allegation by stating thatemployee motivation through transformational leadership positivelyaffects the employee output because it strengthens positive employeerelationship. Furthermore, the research by Van and Beijer(2015) also found out that employees can bemotivated through discrimination basing on poor, average, and a goodperformance by trying the rewards transparently and clearly andproviding the employees with the best chances for career advancement.
Assuch, the organization system must be made in such a way that itensures competitive employee worker compensation in relation to theindustry. Sachdevaand Sachdeva(2016) show that such employee reward systems work to improveemployee satisfaction and engagement through the drive to bond, andjob design. The drive to bond is achieved through a system thatpromotes friendship, openness, collaboration, and teamwork.Therefore, the management of the organizations is thus encouraged tocare for the employees to ensure that the employees have a sense ofbelonging which would then results in motivated employees to ensureoptimum performance for the organization. On the other hand, jobdesign comprises the efforts directed in specifying and creating jobsthat are challenging, interesting and meaningful so that they supportthe drive to comprehend. Sachdevaand Sachdeva(2016) conducted research that made a significant contribution inemployee motivation and can be used to develop an all-inclusiveframework for employee motivation. According to this research, fourapproaches including performance management, job design, culture, andreward system can be used to defend, comprehend, bond, and acquire adistinctive organizational levers. As such, fostering friendship,mutual reliance, teamwork, and collaboration among the employees workby fulfilling the desires of the employees to bond. Whereas cultureof the organization can fulfill the desires of the employees to bond,so is a culture based championing innovation where stableenvironment, policies, and rules could inspire friendship and mutualreliance. The difference between the resource allocation process,performance management, job design, and culture is the fact thatculture is found throughout the entire organization because mostorganizations build their reputation and brand basing on the type ofculture found within the organization. For instance, Walmart, aretail giant based in the United States of America has built aculture intended to compete aggressively in the market whereas acompany like Google has built a culture of innovation.
Therefore,to understand how different cultures can work as organizationallevers used in enhancing employee motivation, it is important toacknowledge several types of organizational cultures. Van and Beijer(2015)discovered that interpretations, assumptions, and values clustertogether through a multidimensional scaling. This framework groupsorganizational culture in terms of two sets of competing valuesincluding the dilemma of the organization and people plus the dilemmaover control and flexible values. As such, four different types ofculture transpire these two aspects of competing values includingcontrol culture emphasizing on the external or internal focus as wellas the flexible culture that emphasize on external and internalfocus. Flexible and control culture necessitates implementation ofnew ideas while a flexible culture encourages creativity andinnovation. Therefore, each type of organizational culture can beviewed as an organizational lever to achieve the drives to ensureemployee motivation. Introducing aspects of innovation culture mayjust be enough to provide the meaning that is intended to fulfill thedrive of the initiative to comprehend but introducing some aspects ofbureaucratic culture may introduce relevant fairness level and thetransparency to achieve the desire to defend. Therefore, employeemotivation starts by recognizing the fact that, to provide their bestwork, the employees ought to be in an environment that meets the verybasic employee emotional drives to defend, comprehend, bond andacquire the status in the in the environment (Fernandez& Moldogaziev, 2013).The managers thus need to identify organizational levers available inthe company to achieve essential employee needs. For instance, thereward system designed to value good performance works to achieve thedesire to acquire. Similarly, the desire to bond can be best achievedby an organization culture that fosters openness and collaborationwhile the work or jobs made to be challenging and meaningful achievesthe drive to comprehend.
Accordingto Fernandezand Moldogaziev (2013), motivating employees requires the managers tounderstand types of motivation to enable them better categorize theirteam member to use the correct type of motivation. As such, intrinsicand extrinsic motivation are the major types of motivation identifiedfrom the literature review. Caillier(2014) defines intrinsic motivation as the type of motivation wherethe motivational stimuli come from within an individual in such a waythat the motivated individuals develop the desire to perform specificduties because the outcomes are in accordance with their beliefs. Onthe other hand, extrinsic motivation is defined by Van and Beijer(2014) as the type individual motivation whereby the motivationalstimuli comes from the outside in such a way that outsidecircumstances control the individuals` desires to perform duties.
Thesignificance of employee motivation is a major theme evident from theliterature revie. According to Caillier(2014), employee motivation is a vital factor in any type oforganization because motivated and empowered workforce indicateshighly productive employees which help the organizations achievebusiness goals. Additionally, Fernandez and Moldogaziev (2013)acknowledge that employee motivation leads to efficient human capitalmanagement which can help a company in achieving its full potentialby utilizing its physical, financial and human resources at itsdisposal because these are resources that motivate the employees inaccomplishing their duties, an indication that employee motivationleads to greater employee satisfaction. Satisfied employees ensureorganization progress and regress which is achieved through monetaryrewards, promotion opportunities, and non-monetary rewards. As such,satisfied employees are extremely loyal towards the company such thatthey even stick to the operation of the organization even during theorganization’s difficult moments. Vana and Beijer (2015) conquerswith this allegation by stating that satisfied employees do not workunder compulsion since they have the aim of taking the organizationto the next level by ensuring maximum output. Additionally, employeemotivation works by keeping the employees on their jobs such thatthey hardly think of leaving their current jobs (Caillier, 2014).This indicates that employee motivation in one way is fundamental foremployee retention which is an implication that business organizationought to retain the talented and deserving employees for guaranteedsuccess and to ensure long-term success.
Also,it is clear from the literature review that employee motivation isfundamental in ensuring higher revenues for business organization.Sachdeva and Sachdeva (2016) acknowledge that motivated employees aresatisfied and happy employees who willingly assist fellow employeesto cooperate within the organization even at times of emergency. Suchsatisfied employees do not have the feeling of abandoning theorganization during a financial crisis in the organization but workin conjunction with other staff members as a single unit inovercoming the challenges to come out of the situation as soon aspossible. Such satisfied employees deem their organization as theirfirst priority then spreads positive word of mouth about theorganization. Furthermore, Van and Beijer (2015) asserts thatmotivated employees ensure cost savings. This implies that themotivated employees of the organization do not necessarily workfaster, but they utilize their creativity and expertise to recommendprocess enhancements that lead to cost savings, increased quality,and reduced turnover.
Vanand Beijer (2014) notes that employersin today`s organization use the outdated theories of motivationbecause they believe in the idea that it is the pressure that makes adiamond. Managers and bosses believe that exceptional performance bythe employees can be achieved by aligning the employee objectives andgoals with some end-of-year bonuses for attaining certain goals andthen the company workers would in turn work towards achieving suchgoals (Fernandez& Moldogaziev, 2013).Most managers are wrong because they focus on the most powerfulmotivators in the workplace by claiming that some theories such asthe Maslow`s theory about the hierarchy of needs are outdated. Also,Vanand Beijer (2015) notethat Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is based on a managerial typewhich focuses on cash bonuses as the essential rewards for employees’good performance.
Accordingto the theory, money happens to be an essential aspect in thehierarchy than purpose or passion which can thus disregard the latterwhile favoring the former. Another example happens when the managerstend to threaten job security as a way of driving performance. Mostmanagers have a feeling that job insecurity influences engagement ofthe employees, but in reality job insecurity can make employees startto look for work elsewhere which in turn makes the organization losevaluable employees in the process. This happens because the managersare attempting to hit a base in safety and security as a way tomotivate in the Maslow`s hierarchy of needs theory. Viewing suchneeds as most important in this theory such as respect andself-esteem is logical that pressure and threats should motivate theemployees to work efficiently and harder in the organization toachieve the expected goals. As such, recent research has been done todisprove the outdated theories of employee motivation. It is notpressuring, security, safety, and money that drives employees totheir places of work which happens to be the aspects found in suchtheories like the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The most fundamentalaspects of employee motivation are what Sachdevaand Sachdeva (2016)discovered that employee become highly productive and driven to theirplaces of work when they have a feeling of making progress towardsachieving an important goal.
Itis true that happy employees are productive employees. Sachdevaand Sachdeva (2016) acknowledgethat the business managers needs to maximize their revenue as theeffort of improving productivity by making the staff members work aseffective as possible. According to Caillier(2014), good communication within an organization is one way ofachieving employee motivation because communication facilitates thedistribution of information that the employees of the company deem asvital in the running of the organization affairs. In this essence,communication is essential in achieving employee motivation becauseit fosters good working relationships between the managers,employees, departments and other levels within the company. This isattributed to the fact that honest and clear communication assists inencouraging and strengthening such working relationships which in theend assists the company employees to reach maximum productivitylevels desired by the management. Second, offering advancementopportunities is another way of achieving employee motivation.Employeesare motivated to work harder within their areas of expertise whenthey know that they are working towards something which implies thattalented employees within an organization always have the need toadvance, broaden their knowledge, and improve their skills whileworking in a particular organization. As such, whether the employeesare recording small workplace progress or acquiring important newskills, such progress is just enough in making them motivated.
Furthermore,Fernandezand Moldogaziev (2013)argue that incentives are motivation boosters for the employees andthey do not have to be expensive to achieve this objective.Incentives refer to the promise or act for a greater action whichworks as a stimulus for a greater action (Fernandez& Moldogaziev, 2013).The incentive provides a zeal or spurs in the workers for betterperformance in increasing productivity, ensuring job satisfaction,shaping the attitude of workers towards work to achieve maximumproduction levels from the employees. Incentives for employeesimprove performance if identified, applied, and supervised correctlybecause it increases the performance of the workers. According toCaillier(2014), empowering employees is also one way of achieving employeemotivation within an organization. Through empowerment, employeesdevelop the feeling of being influential, in control and effectivewhich improves employee commitment, satisfaction, productivity,creativity, and motivation. The manager can achieve employeeempowerment through giving the employees more say in doing theirwork, asking for the employee input and getting the suggestion fromthe employees on what should be done to improve their jobperformance. Therefore, conducting regular employee reviews, askingfor advice from the employees, and giving them the opportunity tomake their decision, is an effective way that can be used to achieveemployee motivation within the organization.
Conclusion,Recommendations and Future Research
Thestudies presented in this paper have evaluated the direct effect ofemployee motivation on different work-related performance andoutcomes. These studies are essential contributions to the literaturein this field especially those conducted in the private and publicsector organizations because they shade light on the pieces ofcomplicated puzzle called employee motivation. Nevertheless, this isthe first research to have incorporated four types of research intoone integrated study to develop the topic of employee motivation inthe organization. As such, the research found out two types ofmotivations including intrinsic and extrinsic motivation that arecommonly applied by managers both in the private and public sectors.Additionally, the research identified the advantages that employeemotivation has on the organization. First, it was noted that employeemotivation leads to a highly productive team becausemotivated and empowered workforce helps the organizations inachieving business goals. Second, employee motivation leads toefficient human capital management which can help a company inachieving its full potential by utilizing its physical, financial andhuman resources at its disposal as these are resources that motivatethe employees in accomplishing their duties. Also, the research notedthat employee motivation works by retaining the employees on theirjobs such that they hardly think of leaving their current jobs.Furthermore, the research concluded by analyzing the factors foremployee employee motivation as evident from the literature review.
Fromthe research, it is clear that employee motivation assists insatisfying and retaining the organization’s employees whichindicate that the employers should not underestimate the significanceof employee motivation. This argument can be attributed to the factthat the unhappy employees who are unmotivated can result in generalworking complaints from the workers which can then cause generalorganization problems. Therefore, the managers both in private andpublic sector ought to ensure employee motivation in the company isachieved by promoting employee career paths, thanking the employees,and giving the employees the respect that they deserve.
Therefore,future research on employee motivation should be able to determinewhether the findings in this research can be applied in specificbusiness entities like schools. Furthermore, the future research onthis topic should be able to analyze finding by applying primary datainstead of secondary data used in the current study.
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Fernandez,S., & Moldogaziev, T. (May 01, 2013). Employee Empowerment,Employee Attitudes, and Performance: Testing a Causal Model. PublicAdministration Review, 73, 3,490-506.
Sachdeva,S., & Sachdeva, R. (January 01, 2016). An Empirical Investigationof Reward System on in MTNL. BulmimJournal of Management and Research, 1, 2,98.
Van,D. V. K., & Beijer, S. (January 01, 2015). The role of employeeHR attributions in the relationship between high-performance worksystems and employee outcomes. HumanResource Management Journal, 25, 1,62-78.