Environmental impact and sustainability

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND SUSTAINABILITY 9

Environmentalimpact and sustainability

InstitutionalAffiliations

Environmentalimpact and sustainability

Therole of whey processing is to convert cheese to its by-products,proteins, lactose, minerals proteins and water that are for humanconsumption.Inaddition to cheese, the major inputs into the system are energy andwater. Therefore, the key environmental impacts of the wheyprocessing plants are the solid waste generation, aquatic andatmospheric. They are determined by the quantity of waste produced,resources used and transports applied during the processing process.Efficientenergy and water resource management inwhey processing arecrucial for cost-effectivesustainability. Thesustainableenvironment isachievablethrough development and implementation of the best alternativetechnological practices and products that improve efficiency in theuse of resources, saves on cost and minimize negative environmentaland human impacts.

Carbonfootprint

Wheymanufacturing, packaging,and transportation leadto the releaseof greens house gassesemission into the atmosphere (Aguirre, 2014). Greenhouse gassesleads to warming of the earth’s climate duetosolar radiation being emitted back to the earth. Carbonfootprint is the average amount of greenhousegassesassociated with a particular product. This value expresses theoverall contribution to the change in climate over a period. Whey processing is a major potential for greenhouse gas emissions.The modern dairy practices produce 1.2 kg of carbon dioxide per 1 kgof, milk. Combustion of fossil fuel during transportation of wheyproduct also contributes to smaller percentages carbon footprint.Other sources of emissions results when consumer through thepackaging container into landfills thus further contributing toemission of methane and carbon dioxide. The whey processing plant inTexas produces 3.5 billion kg of whey per annum. For every kg of wheyproduced, 1.2 kilogramsof carbondioxide result to greenhouse gas emissions.The carbon footprint the whey processing plant is 4.2 billionkilogramsof carbon dioxide (Clark, 2014).

Transportation,

Transportationis ranks as the second greatest contributor to greenhouse gasemissions inthe UnitedStatesafter electricity. It has asignificantand direct role in affecting the environment. On average, on roadvehicles contributes to 82% of the total emissions. From thetransport sector,the various mode of transportation contributing to this are lightduty trucks, medium-heavytrucks, ships and boats, rails and aircraft.Transportation helps in transporting of whey products to the desiredconsumer and transferring ofrawmaterials from the daily farmers to the production plant.

Processedwhey product will transported via roads and air networks to local andinternational consumers. The distance from the processing unit to theDFW international airport is approximately 25 miles. Use of air androad transport contributes to carbon dioxide emission and noisepollution. The location of the plant is also likely to increasetraffic congestion as a result of increased number of truck movingthe whey products from the factory to the consumer retail centersacross the United States and the DFW international airport.

Variousalternatives for reducing greenhouse gassesemissions includes the use of fuel efficient vehicles, use ofalternative fuels and reduction of miles driven (Darton, 2015). Each of the options above requires the involvement of both privateand public sector. Transportation plan activities are necessary todetermine how transportation systems are constructed and operated.Use of cleaner burning fuels is an alternative to for reducing carbonemission through transport some of thisalternative fuel arecurrentlyin use inTexas. The vehicles are now using low sulfur diesel.

Noisepollution

Noiseis a potential hazard in whey processing operations. In the wheyprocessing unit, the sources of noise pollution include the wheyprocessing machines and the transportation system such as trains andmotor vehicles. The clarifier and the cream separator produces toomuch noise which may impair the workers hearing ability. High noiselevels may induce stresses and sleeplessness among the staff.Material flowing through pipes at high velocities is also a source ofnoise pollution.

Noisepollution not only affects human beings but also the communicationbetween wildlife animals. Texas Park is likely to be affected bynoise pollution for the whey processing plant. It is thereforeimportant that the noise levels be reduced to minimal to reduce iteffects to the wild animals, neighboring communities and the wheyplant processing unit staffs. Noiselevels needto be checked to ensure the safetyof the workers and for those working in noisy areas wear protectivegears (Kilara, 2015).

Energy

Wheyprocessing plants are a major source of atmospheric emissionsas a result of extensive use of energy.These plants consume large amounts of energy in heating of buildings,processing water, refrigeration,and transportation final products and raw materials. Use of largequantitiesof energy contributes to the emissionof greenhouse gasses,particularly carbon dioxide.Reduction of energy in whey processingis increasingly becoming important. Over the past few years, wheyprocessing plants have significantlyprogressed in the reducing their energy consumption through processcontrol and optimization. Recycling and energy recovery systems andsuitableproduction processes. This trend will continue a result ofenforcement of carbon trading system (Kosseva, 2013).

Theequipment to be designed for use in whey processing process needs tobe energy efficient. Regeneration is employed in milk pasteurizationto achieve high energy savings. Regeneration reduces the amount ofenergy required to heat milk to pasteurization temperature by 95 %.Multi-effectdesignisanotherprocessused inthe design process. Multi-effectevaporation means evaporation in different stages whereby thegenerated vapors areused for heatingin heating for the progressivestages.

Solidwaste

Thecheese industry generates both solidwastessuch as packaging and liquid waste. In the olden days,these wastes weredumpedin landfills and afterthose posting far-reaching environmental concerns.The wastes contribute to greenhouse gassesemissions and use of water. Research that’s waste from the cheeseindustries contributed to 515 of the greenhouse gas emissions in theproduction storage and distribution phases. Therefore, waste forsuch industries requiresmanagement atseveral levels production,distribution, and consumption.Effective management systems aim at reducing the volume of waste andrecovering the value components from the waste followed by treatmentand finally discharge. Production of minimal waste isachievablethrough the adequatemanufacturingprocess, good manufacturing practice and appropriate equipment designand maintenance. Failure in any of these criteria reduces efficiencywhile increasing product losses.

Wastestream hasfor a long timeviewedas food processing by-products but they formadditionalrevenue avenues. Waste streams are processed further to extract allthe valuable components before discharging them. The value of theseelementsis increased whey processing from cheese is a good example. Back inthe days, wheyused to be animal food, but inthe modern days,it is used to produce high-valueproducts. Reverse osmosis helpsinthe production of lactose and proteins. The resulting waterconsumptionemployedin the

Wastewaterand water

Watersustainability is a major issue in today’s society. Efficient useof water shouldis necessary forwhey processing plants. Statistics shows that 20% of the globalpopulation lacks access to clean water.The consumption of water for whey production plants will increase by50 percent. The deteriorating urban infrastructure environmentaldegradation and climate change arelikely to worsen the condition further. The amount of water disposedofas waste should be as minimal as possible.

Mitigationagainst waste water

Developmentsshould mainly focus on recycling and reusewater. In the olden days, water wasasplentiful and cheap in most parts of the world. Fromthe fact that water used to beplenty and free, people do not focus much on reducing its usage untilrecently when it started being sparse. Availability of laws has ledto reduced wastage of water. Water used for cleaning equipment andheat transfer process in addition to being used as raw materials. Theprocess design should aim at reducing the need for water. Some of thedesign options include water reuse water isreusedin between operations which arehighly dependent on the water quality. Regeneration recyclingthis involves use wastewater treatment plants within the sameoperations and lastly regenerationuse use of treated waste water in a different application from theone from which it Several steps areinvolvedthe firsts step is to remove the large particles followed by removalof additional materials through flocculation, aeration, andcoagulation. The process reduces odor, nutrient and particulatematter.

Foodquality and safety remaina top priority for whey processing plants as a result of theincreased number of adulteration, authenticity and food productsafety issues. Nevertheless, environmental sustainability is verycrucial to whey processing companies. Proper Management ofSustainabilityquality and safetywill ensure safetyand quality are maintained and still ensuring sustainability. Thebiggest challenge in the achievement of this goal is how to enablecompanies to make informed decisions. In addition to assessing theimpact of processing, whey processing companies should also look atthe wider supply and distribution chain and the products package. Thecompanies should apply a differentmethod of sustainability assessment toachieve this goal.

Sustainabilityin energy use

Themulti-effect evaporation and pasteurization are highly efficientprocesses in the heat recovery processes (Kreiser, 2013). An estimateof $70 savings could be realized annually and save up to 100,000 tco2 for the whey processing plants in Texas alone, overcomingthese goals is not an easy task.,there are somechallenges to be conquered. Recovering ambient heat up to 60degreesis quite difficult. Other than evaporation and pasteurizationprocess, other sources of heat waste processes include Refrigerators,Dryers,power plants, boilers, air compressors, kilns,and ovens.

Conventionalrefrigeration consumes muchenergy. Application of waste heat in driving alternativerefrigeration could reduce this consumption. Improving sustainabilityin the whey processing industry will requiretheuseof energy efficient methods coupled with high use of renewableenergies such as wind solar and bioenergy.These choices require combinationswith increased efficiency. Previous studies have shown thatapplication of renewable energies could save the powerconsumption by up to 60 %.Conversionof food waste to energy also plays a critical role in energy savings.

References

Aguirre-Villegas,H. A. (2014). Integratingdairy and bioenergy systems to achieve environmental sustainability:the influence of different lifecycle pathways on energy, greenhousegas emissions, and nutrients.Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.

Clark,S., Jung, S., &amp Lamsal, B. (2014). Foodprocessing: principles and applications.Chichester,West Sussex, UK: John Wiley &amp Sons Inc.

Darton,R. C. (2015). Settinga policy for sustainability.Assessingand Measuring Environmental Impact and Sustainability,479-496. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-799968-5.00014-2

Kilara,A. (2015). Whey and Whey Products. DairyProcessing and Quality Assurance,349-366. doi:10.1002/9781118810279.ch15

Kosseva,M. R., &amp Webb, C. (2013). Foodindustry wastes: assessment and recuperation of commodities.London: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Kreiser,L. (2013). Environmentaltaxation and climate change: achieving environmental sustainabilitythrough fiscal policy.Cheltenham, UK.: Edward Elgar.

Environmental impact and sustainability

  • Uncategorized

Environmentalimpact and sustainability

InstitutionalAffiliations

EnvironmentalImpact and Sustainability

Therole of whey processing is to convert cheese to its by-products,proteins, lactose, minerals proteins and water that are for humanconsumption. In addition to cheese, the primary inputs into thesystem are energy and water. Therefore, the key environmental impactsof the whey processing plants are the solid waste generation, aquaticand atmospheric. They are determined by the quantity of wasteproduced, resources used and transports applied during the processingprocess. Efficient energy and water resource management in wheyprocessing are crucial for cost-effective sustainability. Thesustainable environment is achievable through development andimplementation of the best alternative technological practices andproducts that improve efficiency in the use of resources, saves oncost and minimize negative environmental and human impacts.

Transportation

Transportationis ranks as the second greatest contributor to greenhouse gasemissions in the United States after electricity. It has asignificant and direct role in affecting the environment. From thetransport sector, the various mode of transportation contributing tothis are light duty trucks, medium-heavy trucks, ships and boats,rails and aircraft. Transportation helps in transporting of wheyproducts to the desired consumer and transferring of raw materialsfrom the daily farmers to the production plant.

Processedwhey product will be transported via roads. Heavy tracks will be usedto transport the product from the factory to the outlets. Thedistance from the processing unit to the DFW International airport isapproximately 25 miles. Another route is from the factory to DalhartMuni Airport. The distance is 3.8 miles and takes 9 minutes from theplant. The other route is through Miller Airfield Airport. It is 10miles from the factory and takes about 10 minutes by track.

Variousalternatives for reducing greenhouse gasses emissions includes theuse of fuel efficient vehicles, use of alternative fuels andreduction of miles driven (Darton, 2015). Each of the options aboverequires the involvement of both private and public sector.Transportation plan activities are necessary to determine howtransportation systems are constructed and operated. Use of cleanerburning fuels is an alternative to for reducing carbon emissionthrough transport some of these alternative fuels are currently inuse in Texas. The vehicles are now using low sulphur diesel.

Noisepollution

Noiseis a potential hazard in whey processing operations. In the wheyprocessing unit, the sources of noise pollution include the wheyprocessing machines and the transportation system such as trains andmotor vehicles. The clarifier and the cream separator produces toomuch noise which may impair the workers hearing ability. High noiselevels may induce stresses and sleeplessness among the staff.Material flowing through pipes at high velocities is also a source ofnoise pollution.

Noisepollution affects not only human beings but also the communicationbetween wildlife animals. Texas Park is likely to be affected bynoise pollution for the whey processing plant. It is, therefore,important that the noise levels be reduced to minimal to reduce iteffects to the wild animals, neighbouring communities and the wheyplant processing unit staffs. Noise levels need to be checked toensure the safety of the workers and for those working in noisy areaswear protective gears (Kilara, 2015).

Energy

Wheyprocessing plants are a major source of atmospheric emissions as aresult of extensive use of energy. These plants consume large amountsof energy in heating of buildings, processing water, refrigeration,and transportation final products and raw materials. Use of largequantities of energy contributes to the emission of greenhousegasses, particularly carbon dioxide.Reduction of energy in wheyprocessing is increasingly becoming important. Over the past fewyears, whey processing plants have significantly progressed in thereducing their energy consumption through process control andoptimization. Recycling and energy recovery systems and suitableproduction processes. This trend will continue a result ofenforcement of carbon trading system (Kosseva, 2013).

Theequipment to be designed for use in whey processing process needs tobe energy efficient. Regeneration is employed in milk pasteurizationto achieve high-energy savings. Regeneration reduces the amount ofenergy required to heat milk to pasteurization temperature by 95 %.Multi-effect design is another process used in the design process.Multi-effect evaporation means evaporation in different stageswhereby the generated vapours are used for heating in heating for theprogressive stages.

Solidwaste

Thecheese industry generates both solid wastes such as packaging andliquid waste. In the olden days, these wastes were dumped inlandfills and after those posting far-reaching environmentalconcerns. The wastes contribute to greenhouse gasses emissions anduse of water. Research that is waste from the cheese industriescontributed to 515 of the greenhouse gas emissions in the productionstorage and distribution phases. Therefore, waste for suchindustries requires management at several levels production,distribution, and consumption. Efficient management systems aim atreducing the volume of waste and recovering the value components fromthe waste followed by treatment and finally discharge. Production ofminimal waste is achievable through the adequate manufacturingprocess, good manufacturing practice and appropriate equipment designand maintenance. Failure in any of these criteria reduces efficiencywhile increasing product losses.

Wastestream has for a long time viewed as food processing by-products butthey form additional revenue avenues. Waste streams are processedfurther to extract all the valuable components before dischargingthem. The value of these elements is increased whey processing fromcheese is a good example. Back in the days, whey used to be animalfood, but in the modern days, it is used to produce high-valueproducts. Reverse osmosis helps in the production of lactose andproteins. The resulting water consumption employed in the

Wastewaterand water

Watersustainability is a major issue in today’s society. Efficient useof water should is necessary for whey processing plants. Statisticsshows that 20% of the global population lacks access to clean water.The consumption of water for whey production plants will increase by50 percent. The deteriorating urban infrastructure environmentaldegradation and climate change are likely to worsen the conditionfurther. The amount of water disposed of as waste should be asminimal as possible.

MitigationTechniques

Mitigationagainst wastewater

Developmentsshould mainly focus on recycling and reuse water. In the olden days,water was as plentiful and cheap in most parts of the world. From thefact that water used to be plenty and free, people do not focus muchon reducing its usage until recently when it started being sparse. Availability of laws has led to reduced wastage of water. Water usedfor cleaning equipment and heat transfer process in addition to beingused as raw materials. The process design should aim at reducing theneed for water. Some of the design options include water reuse wateris reused in between operations, which are highly dependent on thewater quality. Regeneration recycling this involves use wastewatertreatment plants within the same operations and lastly regenerationuse use of treated waste water in a different application from theone from which it Several steps are involved the firsts step is toremove the large particles followed by removal of additionalmaterials through flocculation, aeration, and coagulation. Theprocess reduces odour, nutrient and particulate matter.

Foodquality and safety remain a top priority for whey processing plantsas a result of the increased number of adulteration, authenticity andfood product safety issues. Nevertheless, environmentalsustainability is very crucial to whey processing companies. ProperManagement of Sustainability quality and safety will ensure safetyand quality are maintained and still ensuring sustainability. Thebiggest challenge in the achievement of this goal is how to enablecompanies to make informed decisions. In addition to assessing theimpact of processing, whey-processing companies should also look atthe wider supply and distribution chain and the products package. Thecompanies should apply a different method of sustainabilityassessment to achieve this goal.

Mitigationagainst Energy Consumption

Themulti-effect evaporation and pasteurization are highly efficientprocesses in the heat recovery processes (Kreiser, 2013). An estimateof $70 savings could be realized annually and save up to 100,000 tco2 for the whey processing plants in Texas alone, overcoming thesegoals is not an easy task, there are some challenges to be conquered.Recovering ambient heat up to 60degrees is quite difficult. Otherthan evaporation and pasteurization process, other sources of heatwaste processes include Refrigerators, Dryers, power plants, boilers,air compressors, kilns, and ovens.

Conventionalrefrigeration consumes much energy. Application of waste heat indriving alternative refrigeration could reduce this consumption.Improving sustainability in the whey processing industry will requirethe use of energy efficient methods coupled with high use ofrenewable energies such as wind solar and bio-energy. These choicesrequire combinations with increased efficiency. Previous studies haveshown that application of renewable energies could save the powerconsumption by up to 60 %.Conversion of food waste to energy alsoplays a critical role in energy savings.

Mitigationagainst Noise Pollution

Awhey processing plant is likely to produce a lot of noise. Thesources of noise are the machinery and other auxiliary equipment, andvehicles. Adherence to environmental protection authority guidelinesconcerning noise as well as the application of engineering techniqueswill help in minimizing noise pollution.

Oneof the engineering techniques for noise reduction is maintenance.Proper maintenance of equipment is necessary to ensure high overallefficiency. Worn-out and loose parts of machinery should be replaced.It is also necessary to ensure that all machine components are wellaligned to avoid vibrations. Moving parts should regularly belubricated to ensure smooth flow. Noise due to vibrations can beminimized by the application of sound absorbents. The use of properprotective equipment such as earmuffs and earplugs reduces the riskof being exposed to high level of noise.

Mitigationagainst Solid Waste

Awhey processing plant hardly produces solid waste. The main sourcesof solid waste in a whey processing plant are product spillages andsludge that come from a wastewater treatment system. The mitigationstrategies for solid waste are aimed at minimizing solid wastegeneration and encourage reuse and recycle of the by-products.

Oneof the strategies is to train staff on proper material handling tominimize product spillages. Spills of solid materials such as cheesecurd can be swept and reused as stock food. The use of effectivescreens in the wastewater treatment systems ensures that all solidmaterials are trapped to prevent them from blocking the system. Thedisposal of such waste should be in line with the EnvironmentalProtection Authority.

3.Sustainability Metrics

Accordingto Cohen,Bose, Guo, DeFrancia, Berger, Filiatraut. … &amp Zhang (2014),sustainability refers to the utilization of resources and consumptionin a way that minimizes hazardous environmental impact and maximizesconservation of resources and reuse. Sustainability metrics are,therefore, the tools used to measure the benefits of applyingsustainability. A business will be sustainable if it has minimumharmful environmental effects and when it is viable economically.Sustainability management helps businesses to determine their values(Cohen, et al. 2014). The most common measures of sustainability areenvironmental, economical and social factors.

3.1Environmental Indicators

Environmentalindicators show an organization`s utilization of resources, wasteminimization and amount of pollution discharged into the environment.The main indicators are resource usage, emissions, effluents andwaste, and other environmental factors.

3.1.1Resource usage

Themain materials used in a whey processing plant are water, whey, drymatter, lactose, protein, and mineral ash. Based on the calculations,the mass balance was obtained as follows. This shows the utilizationof each resource in the plant.

Fromthe table, it can be seen that whey processing plant uses a lot ofwater in a day. Water is used in various processes in the plant andfor other purposes such as cleaning. To ensure proper usage, a wastewater treatment system can turn the waste water into use. Oncetreated using anaerobic system, for instance, it can be used forirrigation. This will make the plant to be safe and sustainable.

3.1.2Emissions, effluents and waste

Theprimary emission from a whey processing plant is the waste watergenerated after cleaning the membranes. Considering that whey is afood material consumed by humans, high hygiene standards must beobserved. It is for this reason that the membranes are washed everyafter 24 hours of use. The wastewater from the plant is then takenthrough effluent discharge drainage system to a wastewater treatmentplant where it is treated to remove toxic components before it isdischarged to the environment. The treated water can be re-used.

3.1.3Additional Environmental Items

Additionalenvironmental items include noise emitted by machines. Noisepollution can however, be easily avoided through various engineeringtechniques. The adherence to Operational Safety and Health Actguidelines on noise pollution will quickly minimize the dangers ofnoise, and thus make the plant environmental friendly.

3.2Economic Indicators

Economicindicators take into account the financial benefits of anorganization and the community as a whole. The indicators showwhether a business is worth investing or not based on the financialperformance. Some of the economic indicators are profit, value andtax, investments and other factors.

3.2.1Profit, value, and tax

Theplant is aimed at producing 3.5 billion kilograms of whey per year.If this is successfully implemented, huge profits are likely to berealized and the breakeven point of the investment will be reachedwithin a short time.

Dueto the development and advancement of new processing techniques, andthe increased awareness of the financial and environmental benefitsof whey processing, many manufacturers have currently resorted toprocessing whey into several protein products. Whey protein hasdifferent uses such as in bakery products, sports bars and infantformulas (Hutchinson,Balagtas, Krochta, &amp Sumner, 2013). There is a rapid growth of the whey market in the United States.Morder Intelligence (2017) estimates an annual growth of 3.5% of thewhey market. With the rising global demand for dairy-based products,the whey processing business is likely to become one of the mostprofitable in the world. Growth in sales translates to more profits.The federal government will benefit more from tax due to theincreased revenues.

Themetrics to measure profitability include value added per directemployee, return on investment (ROI), Return on Assets (ROA), ProfitMargin, Net profit after tax (NPAT), and sales revenue.

Theglobal whey production is as shown in the figure below.

Figure1:Global Whey production. Adopted from 3A Business Consulting:https://www.adpi.org/Portals/0/PDF/09Conference/TAGEAFFERTSHOLT.pdf

3.2.2Investments

Wheyprocessing is a potential business investment that can be assured ofmoney back guarantee. The increased demand for infant foods,supplements for elderly and the new application of whey in personalcare present investment opportunities for whey processing.

Theinvestment appraisals of the business will take into account the R&ampDexpenditure, training of employees on specific processes, thepercentage increase in equity capital used, and new appointments. Asa way of giving back to the community, the company will alsoparticipate in charitable activities.

3.2.3Additional Economic Items

Thefinancial performance of whey processing can be evaluated based onother factors such as Return on Equity, foot traffic, the number ofrepeat customers versus new customers, Operation costs, the cost ofraw materials, and taxation costs.

3.3Social Indicators

Socialindicators are those that are related to the welfare of people. Theindividuals who are affected by the plant include the employees andthe community of Texas where the plant will be located. A sustainablebusiness ensures that its employees are well taken care of. Corporate social responsibility is a common phenomenon inorganizations. The company is expected to strive to make a positiveimpact to the community around Texas.

3.3.1Workplace

Workplacemetrics directly affect the employees. A happy employee will producequality products. It is the duty of a company to ensure that workenvironments are safe for all. The use of protective equipment isnecessary to avoid injuries. Regular training and incentive plans areimportant at workplaces. The workplace sustainability metrics includeemployee turnover, the rate of promotions, the occurrence ofaccidents, income and benefit ratio, employee`s overall efficiency,workers’ productivity, employee`s availability, which is the ratioof the number of the actual operation time of an employee to thetotal production hours required, and absenteeism.

3.3.2Society

Thesociety refers to the group of people other than the employees. Thechosen location, Dalhartin Texas County is characterized by little rain of less than 16inches. A business in such a location should ensure that problemsaffecting the community are minimized. The community is among thestakeholders of the company therefore, it should be involved in someof the company decisions. When manufacturing a product, theconsumers’ needs should be given a priority. The sustainability ofcompany to the society can be measured in terms of the number ofcustomer complaints per unit value discharged to the market, thenumber of legal suits per unit value added community benefits and thecommunity involvement in the company`s decisions. 3.3.3Additional Social Items

Othersocial items include the company’s involvement in corporate socialresponsibility. CSR can be implemented in various ways depending onthe primary need of the community. An assessment of the communityneeds is necessary to ensure that relevant plans are implemented. Themetrics can include the number of scholarships or beneficiaries ofthe company’s CSR initiative in the community, the amount of moneyset aside for corporate responsibility, the number of followers of acompany in social media such as Twitter and Facebook, among others.

Appendix:Detailed Calculation of sustainability Indicators

Resources

Water

Basedon the updated Mass balance values on the system, the amount of waterper hour at the feeding tube is 17,033.3 kg/hr.

Amountof whey = 10,174 kg/hr (Dry matter + lactose + minerals)

Totalwater consumed per unit mass of product= of whey

Assumingthat the plant will be running for 24 hours in three 8-hours shiftall days of the week,

TotalAmount of water per year=

EconomicIndicators

CostEstimates

Thecapital Cost was estimated using the Bridgwater Method:

(ChemicalEngineering Project,2017)

Where:

C=CapitalCost

N=Numberof functional units

Q=Plant Capacity (Tonne per year)

S=Reactorconversion

Consideringa plant capacity of 3.5 billion kilos per year,

Q=3.5 million tonne/year

S=1

N=5

Multiplyingthis by the inflation rate of 2.7, the equivalent cost will be

LabourCosts

Thecompany will employ 50 people for a start. The plant will operate in3 shifts therefore, there will be one supervisor for each shift. Outof the fifty employees, about ten of them will be in managerialposition. The company is expected to have 30 technicians.

Onaverage, a technician is currently paid $19.25/hour (payscale Inc,2017). Assuming all other employees except the management team, willbe paid $19.25/hour.

Managementpersonnel will be paid an average of $22/hour.

Therefore,total wage per hour =

TotalLabour cost per year=

OtherCosts (Annual)

Expense

Estimated Cost ($)

Regular Maintenance

18,550,600

Laboratory

350,000

Plant Overheads

853,000

Insurance

Research and Development

650,000

General Overheads

45,650,000

Total

66,053,600

Emissions

Figure2:Approximate Whey composition-Adopted fromhttp://dairyprocessinghandbook.com/chapter/whey-processing

References

ChemicalEngineering Projects (2017). Rapid Capital Cost Estimating Methods.Retrieved fromhttps://chemicalprojects.wordpress.com/2014/05/08/rapid-capital-cost-estimating-methods/

Clark,S., Jung, S., &amp Lamsal, B. (2014). Foodprocessing: principles and applications.Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley &amp Sons Inc.

Cohen,S. A., Bose, S., Guo, D., DeFrancia, K., Berger, O., Filiatraut, B.,… &amp Zhang, C. (2014). The Growth of Sustainability Metrics(Sustainability Metrics White Paper Series: 1 of 3).

Darton,R. C. (2015). Setting a policy for sustainability. Assessingand Measuring Environmental Impact and Sustainability,479-496. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-799968-5.00014-2

Hutchinson,F.M., Balagtas, J.V., Krochta, J.M., &amp Sumner, D.A., (2013).PotentialGains to Producers from New Uses for Whey. RetrievedMarch 28, 2017, from http://aic.ucdavis.edu/oa/brief20.pdf

Kilara,A. (2015). Whey and Whey Products. DairyProcessing and Quality Assurance,349-366. doi:10.1002/9781118810279.ch15

Kosseva,M. R., &amp Webb, C. (2013). Foodindustry wastes: assessment and recuperation of commodities.London: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Kreiser,L. (2013). Environmentaltaxation and climate change: achieving environmental sustainabilitythrough fiscal policy.Cheltenham, UK.: Edward Elgar.

MorderIntelligence (2017). GlobalWhey Protein Market – Growth, Trends, and Forecast (2017 – 2022.).Retrieved March28, 2017, fromhttps://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/global-whey-protein-market-industry

PayscaleInc. (2017). PlantTechnician Salary. Retrieved fromhttp://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=Plant_Technician/Hourly_Rate