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is the study of occurrences of diseases in different groups ofindividuals and reasons why they happen. This epidemiologicalinformation is vital and can be used in planning and evaluatingstrategies to curb illnesses and also as a guide to the management ofpatients who have already developed the disease. For example, theclinical findings and pathology, epidemiology of an illness isbasically a description of its integral parts and therefore anessential characteristic of epidemiology is determining the outcomeof a disease in relation to the demographic who are at risk this canbe in peoples group either sick or healthy who will be used as casestudies when the research is conducted.

Thechoosing of trial samples to be considered is partially random,within the target population, a population study is always identifiedhence choosing of a study sample in random from the population studyand thus the population being looked in to are of two crop ups fromthe study groups concerned. The appropriateness of this approach iswhere a suitable study population can be known but should be greaterthan the investigation required. For example in a back pain surveyand its likely causes, the population targeted will be those who aresuffering from back pains. Study population’s definition startswith some features which is shared by all its members (Robertson,L. S 2015).

EpidemiologicalProblem of Choice

Researcherscan conduct studies of different types in trying to comprehend theworld around us where the epidemiological study is being the weakestand least reliable method available an example is when givingpresentations concerning nutrition where one is fond of pointing outthat there is no proof showing that greens are necessary and healthy.Probably, someone may inquire how this can be said. When many studiesare showing how vegetables are healthy the only solution has oneperson to eat vegetables and the other person not to eat and finallysee who becomes healthier after a period of time (Robertson,L. S 2015).An entomological study cannot be an experiment, and so entomologistspick up a health problem and find out why some people are prone todeveloping this problem compared to other people. In this case, wecan take an example of a heart disease and a good example being the&quotFrench Paradox&quot which in some years back it appeared asthough the French people were less likely to contract this heartdisease compared to the Americans which made epidemiologists makecomparisons between the French and Americans lifestyles (Robertson,L. S 2015).

Typesof Epidemiological Studies

Epidemiologicalstudies are of three main types and they include:

Prospectivestudies- that focuses on looking forward over a period of time andmostly attempt examining associations between the frequency ofoccurrence of a disease and determinants by making comparisons ontheir rates of attack or their disease incidences in individualsgroups, this may either vary with the frequencies incident or thedeterminant being absent or present.

Retrospectivestudies- which its main task is looking backward over a period oftime and usually attempt to make the comparison between non-diseasedindividuals and the frequency of occurrence of determinants in thediseased groups (Robertson,L. S 2015).

Cross-sectionalstudies- this attempts to compare and examine the estimates of adisease spreading among many populations at particular intervals oftime.

However,these approaches may frequently be combined in a general study of aproblem in a disease. The mortality and morbidity rates in suchissues can be compared with variables like milk yield and weight gaindepending on the goals of that particular study.

Healthexperts have a range of interventions that maps up preventions thisincludes the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention.Since prevention includes a wide variety of interventions or ratheractivities, it is frequently aimed at reducing risks to health(Robertson,L. S 2015).

PrimaryLevel of Prevention

Primarylevel prevents an injury before even its occurrence, and it is mostlydone by preventing hazardous exposures which cause these injurieshence leading to unsafe characters that will end up causing diseases.Examples include the enforcement and legislation to control the useof dangerous products and mandating healthy and safe practices, e.g.,the use of seatbelts while traveling and also using the bike helmetswhile riding. Another example is a vaccination against the infectiousdiseases as this acts as a preventive measure that will curb thedisease once there is an outbreak (Robertson,L. S 2015).

SecondaryLevel prevention

Thisaims at reducing the disease impacts or injuries that have alreadyhappened. It is usually done by treating and detecting an illness assoon as possible to slow down or to stop its progress henceencouraging prevention of reoccurrence of such a menace. Examplesinclude regular screening test and examination when it is still inits earliest stages. Also, low-dose aspirins and daily diets shouldbe done to prevent strokes and further heart attacks (Robertson,L. S 2015).

TertiaryLevel prevention

Withthe tertiary level it aims at softening the effects of an illnessthat has lasting impacts, and this is done to help people managecomplex long-term problems and injuries so as to improve theirability to function. Examples include cardiac programs forrehabilitation and also management programs for chronic diseasese.g., for diabetes, depression, and arthritis. Another example is forrehabilitation programs which should be vocational to help workers inrefraining them from getting new jobs when the recovery is made(Robertson,L. S 2015.

Inconclusion, epidemiological study research should be carried outefficiently so as to curb the spread of infectious disease.Prevention is always known to be better than cure, and so for us tolive healthily, we need to avoid hazardous exposures.


Robertson,L. S. (2015).&nbspInjuryepidemiology.Lulu. com.