Ethics and Moral Reasoning

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ETHICS AND MORAL REASONING 1

Ethicsand Moral Reasoning

Ethicsand Moral Reasoning

Ethicsinvolves the analysis of different reasons by considering the goodand bad in them. Moral reasoning is composed of two areas, acombination of reasons and the conclusion derived from this set ofreasons. According to Utilitarianism, the most valuable things tosentient beings is their happiness or well-being. It is aboutconsidering which set of ideas are better than the other set. Thetheory alludes that we can relate good to happiness and bad tosuffering without appealing to anything of value[ CITATION Mos13 l 1033 ].

Accordingto Mill, some categories of pleasure or satisfaction are preferredthan others. Human beings have certain desires that they rate highlythan others. Anything that brings gratification to a person is chosenover other things. For example, the desire that is derived fromeating and sex are lowly regarded compared to intellectual pleasure,such as long lasting relationships and completing a degree course. Itis better to be a human being who is not satisfied in life than beinga pig that is satisfied[ CITATION Mos13 l 1033 ].

PeterSinger supports the idea that moral status should be identified andcategorized depending on sentient beings who can perceive pleasureand pain. All beings should suffer equally according to the principleof equality. We can only consider people that can recognizehappiness, enjoyment, and suffering. The boundary that separatesbeings that can experience pain and hose that cannot is an imaginaryline whose characteristics is rational thinking or intelligence.

Thereare two types of Utilitarianism, Act that states that, given theprinciple of equality, one has to choose between right and wrong.Rule utilitarianism suggests that one should apply moral rules whenmaking a decision. The choice of the rules should result in the bestconsequences. Such types of rules include: do not cause injury toothers. In conclusion, there are moral standards that are consideredbefore making a decision. We should always choose what bringshappiness to us.

References

Mosser, k. (2013). Understanding Philosophy.