Gene to Protein Assignment

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Geneto Protein Assignment

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Geneto Protein Assignment

Genedefinition

Agene is the primary physical and functional component unit inheredity. Genes are composed of DNA that gives instruction in theformation of molecules known as proteins (Maas, 2011). Human beingshave various sizes of genes varying from hundreds to million bases. Aperson constitutes two copies of genes inherited from both parents.

Normalrole of insulin in the human body

Insulinhelps in controlling blood glucose levels. It signals fat cells,liver, and muscle to take in excess glucose from the blood and storeit as glycogen for later production of energy (Maas, 2011). The liverhas the capacity of storing glycogen to about 5% of its mass. VariousCells in the body can solemnly extract glucose from the bloodindependently without insulin, but most of them need insulin for themto be present.

Bloodsugar control in Type 1 diabetes

Hyperglycemiais a condition of high levels of blood sugar in the body. This is acondition that occurs when the body cannot respond adequately to theinsulin (type 2diabetes) or when the body is not in a position tomake insulin (type 1 diabetes). For those with diabetes, glucosebuilds up in the blood to extreme levels leading to hyperglycemia.When such a condition persists for long, there can be serious healthrepercussions such as stroke, damage to blood vessels, nerveproblems, kidney problems and heart disease if the condition is nottamed (Maas, 2011).

Whyis there no amino acid #22?

Lotsof evidence proves that genetic codes had evolved from genes that hadless than 20 amino acids. It is, therefore, true that amino acid canonly be numbered from 1-21 as anything beyond such as 22 would leadto drastic reorganization.

Theeffect of a mutation

Mutationsare categorized into either germ-line mutations or somatic mutation(Maas, 2011). Somatic mutations do not have many effects on organismsas body cells are made to compensate mutated cells except in caseswhere mutations affect cell division.

HowDNA change would affect the amino acid sequence

Thereare many places mutations can appear since body cells are made ofDNA. Germline mutations are passed on to offspring as it happensreproductive cells, and it is responsible for evolution. There areseveral effects that can be resulted by germ like mutation. Oneinstance is where there is no noticeable effect on an organism (Maas,2011). This can occur in a case where the mutation only happens in astretch of a DNA thus ending up not affecting amino acids in any way.Other small mutations may occur in phenotype causing deformation oforgans. There could also be big changes in an organism such as insectbecoming resistance to DDT.

Singlebase substitution

Thereare several effects that occur as a result of the single basesubstitution. Substitution mutation results to replacing a base withanother. The effect and impact of substitution depend on the locationof where substitution occurs in the amino acid chain.

Whatwas the historical source of insulin used by diabetics?

Uponthe discovery of insulin in 1921 it has been among the highlyresearched molecule in the history of science (Maas, 2011). The causeof diabetes remained a mystery till the early 1920s when it wassuspected to be brought by some malfunction in part of the digestivesystem that could be related to the liver. This research by then hadfailed to identify that diabetic persons lacked insulin in theirbody.

Howcan we trick such microbes into making human insulin?

Microbesare tricked into making human insulin by introducing human plasmidsinto bacteria to stimulate the production of insulin. The insulingene is extracted from a human cell by a special enzyme. The humangene is then attached to the bacteria’s chromosome and laterattached to a bacterial cell. It is this mechanism that a bacterialcell is stimulated to produce insulin.

Biochemicaldefinition of a gene

Agene is part of a DNA composed of nucleotides, and it is the majorcomponent in heredity. For genes that encode proteins, they are madeup of a series of triple-nucleotide sequence known as codons (Maas,2011). The codons act just like words in the language of genetic. Thecoding in genetics dictates what happens in protein translationbetween amino acids and codons.

References

Maas,W. K. (2011). Geneaction: A historical account.Oxford: Oxford University Press.