HealthDisparity: New York City
HealthDisparity: New York City
Eventhough there has been a tremendous development in the healthdepartments in New York over the past years, not all personalitieshave profited equally (Cerdá, Tracy, Ahern & Galea, 2014).Dissimilarities in individual’s health may have been encouraged byvarious aspects. According to Cerdá et al. (2014), whendisproportions replicate social imbalances, they are known as healthdisparity, which is a great worry to the national health communalalongside the society at large. In other words, health disparitiesare variances in the well-being outcomes amid groups that replicatesocial disproportions. It arises from different sources, some ofwhich are not appropriately appreciated.
Someof the factors believed to propel disparities are social andsurrounding physical circumstances, opportunities, as well asstressors influencing health, restricted accessibility to criticaland preventive health care, and excellent hospital establishments.Nonetheless, New York, particularly through the Health and MentalHygiene sections, focuses to eradicate health disparities.Furthermore, the “United States’ Department of Health and HumanService” brought forth People Objectives 2010 to advance well-beingfor the American Society while eliminating health disparities amongstsections of New York (Alcorn, 2012). For instance, variations thatcomes about by gender, ethnicity, and or races, income, disability,education, sexual orientation, as well as geographical localities.Thus, the paper outlines health disparities in New York, its social,political and economic background, ethical concerns, as well as theappropriate alternative solutions.
Political,Social and Economic Background of New York’s Health Disparity
Thehealth disparity of New York City is multifaceted in nature,comprising of such social issues as education and racial diversity,economic concerns like household earning disproportions, andpolitical drawbacks in which the wealthy political players retaintheir unique health privileges while the common residents surfer. Thesocial, political, and economic issues, in relation to New Yorkhealth disparity, are as discussed below.
Detailedcomprehension of health inequality needs a look at various socialfactors. First, education highly influences health care. Cerdá etal. (2014) confirmed that personalities without high school diplomaexhibit increased susceptibility to health disparity compared totheir learned counterparts who are more likely to have well-payingjobs, disposable income for medical expenditure, as well as healthinsurance. In New York, due to high poverty, only a few people manageto attend high school colleges. Therefore, ethnic variation ineducation, as well as income, could principally outline the poorhealth of the New Yorkers. Second, economic status alone does notjustify health disparity in health sectors race, and or ethnicityhave an impact in medical care based on discrimination.
Manyraces are found in New York City, for instance, it consists of about2,800,000 whites, 1,960,000 blacks, 2,160,000 Hispanic and 780,000Asians, and hence discrimination is witnessed (Tulchinsky &Varavikova, 2014). Discrimination might lead to constant worry andmental trauma, causing poor physical and psychological health.Correspondingly, Alcorn(2012) pointed out that discriminationrestricts accessibility to quantity and excellent medical practicessuch as medical care, recreational facilities, and housing. Lastly,in addition to discrimination, culture, as well as tradition,influence health disparities, because they affect some practices e.g.smoking besides sexual practices which eventually influence medicalpractice (Cerdá et al., 2014).
Inthe New York City, the occupants are usually average and poorercompared to the national population. Cerdá et al. (2014) determinedthat roughly 21 percent of New York City population lives beneath thepoverty line, an upsurge from 19 percent in the census carried in1990. On the other hand, approximately 12 percent of the UnitedStates’ population lives in poverty. Besides, in New York City,roughly a percentage of 50 of the poorest populace earn less than 20percent of the income of the city, with the richest 20 percentpopulation earning about 50 percent of the income of the City.Furthermore, over one-third of the total New York family circlesreceive an income below USD 25. According to Alcorn (2012), havinglow economic income impacts health in various ways, for instance,low-income, and or poverty makes it challenging to get and keephigh-quality medical care or to get and exploit opportunities formedically approved nutrition is tougher in poor regions.
Also,low-quality accommodation exposes low-income earning New Yorkresidents to many environmental threats, for example, lead paint.Being poor or lack of enough money leads to inappropriate child care,making it difficult to uphold a safe and healthy home (Alcorn, 2012).For the reasons mentioned above, New York City experiences healthdisparity due to unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, as well asalcohol consumption and drug use. Therefore, there exist a greatrelationship between health disparity and economic positions ofhouseholds. Poor health habits make it problematic for individuals toachieve high education standards that enable them to secure highearning jobs which, in the long run, lead to poverty. Moreover,economic level of the surrounding regions plays a significant role inhealth disparity in the city of New York. For instance, the city issurrounded by the poorest neighbors, including “South Bronx, East,Central Harlem, and North and Central Brooklyn,” whereby over onein three households live below poverty line (Cerdá et al., 2014).
Politicsmight cause health disparities in various perspectives, for instance,government policies to enhance the economy might affect wage earnersto lose ground due to inflation in the New York, leading todisparities in wealth and income among individuals. Furthermore, theweight of New York Federal Income Taxes has changed extensively,therefore, playing a significant part in income disparities.Additionally, through politics, it is not easy to overcome theincreasing breaches in health disparities. According to Tulchinsky &Varavikova (2014), the growing focus on income makes inequality morechallenging to access health care, because the wealthy individualsinvolved in politics always maintain their unique health privileges.In view of that, disparities in wage earners appear to generatepolitical polarization that inclines to favor individuals who obtainbetter deals from the present rulers. Alcorn (2012) affirmed that NewYork politics plays a tangible role against the concern of the lessunfortunate because several wealthy and powerful personalities inpolitics enjoy first class health care while low-income personscontinue with the struggle to derive the same services.
EthicalConcerns of New York’s Health Disparity
Sickness,as well as health-related resources, is unequally distributed acrossthe New York City. Designed and minimal resources exist amongstcertain people, for instance, rural inhabitants and ethnic minoritypersons (Cerdá et al., 2014). Thus, substantial health inequality ordisparities are highly witnessed among the residents of New York.Furthermore, personalities residing in rural environments, comparedto those staying in urban areas, experience biasness based on diseaseburden concerning medical care resources. For example, ruraloccupants encounter high level of chronic sickness amidst otherlife-threatening medical conditions.
Cerdáet al. (2014) argued that ethnic minority individuals have loweraccessibility to suitable health care assets, for example, minimalaccess to a continuous principal caregiver, preventive care, as wellas reduced rates of medical insurance.
Therefore,many ethnic communities have experienced disparities based on infantmortality, death rates caused by violent means alongside majorsickness such as cancer, diabetes, and or asthma. In New York, ethnicpersonalities always receive poor quality interpersonal health carecompared to their white counterparts (Alcorn, 2012). In spite ofphysical and often better medical care requirements, limited medicalassets exist for rural and ethnic minority personalities. As aresult, they lack appropriate and updated medical care facilities.Based on that, they cannot withstand a continuum of required servicesboth for physical and mental health wants of their patients. As astate concern, there exist short supply of medical specialists,generalists, and subspecialists in the rural clinical set ups leadingto health inequality (Cerdá et al., 2014).
Additionally,most of the rural medical facilities have inadequate finances,thereby experiencing many challenges as medical caregivers areexhausted due to different medical needs in their place of work(Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2014). Moreover, geographicalconditions and climate variability are important considerationsoutside the urban environment, as many inaccessible regions of NewYork have poor transportation networks and or no accessibility byplane under certain climatic conditions or seasons (Alcorn, 2012).Inaddition, cultural beliefs and practices amongst other ethnicminority groups is a primary concern, for example, some people haveattitude regarding illness based on issues about cultural ethics’sensitivity and proficiency. As a result, the evaluation of healthinequality in New York is an attempt that has a natural ethicalbasis.
AlternativeSolutions to New York’s Health Disparity
Asdiscussed earlier, health disparity impact certain ethnic, racial,social and or income groups. For that reason, appreciating anddeveloping the interventions to deter the primary causes of healthinequality across New York City, as well as around the world, isessential (Alcorn, 2012). Therefore, some of the solutions are asfollow. First, the government should broaden accessibility to thefirst-class preschool along other early intervention plans, becausean educated child in a first-class learning environment will clearlyunderstand personal needs, as well as socio-economic positions in thefamily. Also, they are provided with appropriate academic courses andessential services. For that reason, they will attain critical higherscores on matters concerning early pregnancies, adult wages and rateof employment (Alcorn, 2012).
Second,public health sectors, with the help of state government, shouldpropel reduction in housing separation as it replicates racial andethnic health inequality due to different living conditions.Tulchinsky & Varavikova (2014) reasoned that assisting the poorindividual to reduce poverty-environment can increase positive healthoutcome. Furthermore, more legal efforts are needed to challengeresidential and or learning institution isolation throughimplementation of antidiscrimination, as well as the similar openinglaw to maintain fair practices amongst the ethnic minority groups.Third, the National Health Department should advance housing stock,because accommodation is an essential aspect contributing to healthinequality, i.e. people of particular race disproportionately residesin old and less healthy houses (Alcorn, 2012). Fourth, minimizinggeographical obstacles to opportunity, that is, the HealthDepartment, via the government, should embrace a strategy ofincreasing housing choices for individuals of color. From that, thegovernment policies will not disregard the wants of majority tominority groups several communities mentioned earlier were isolatedfrom many opportunities that lead to health disparity among them. Inaddition, further policies, such as public transportation, housingmobility, as well as economic empowerment, will minimize the distancebetween persons and employment openings (Cerdá et al., 2014).Lastly, the federal government should consider abolishing disparitiesin public education system. Hence, children of other races who alwaysattend poverty-stricken schools with poor education systems will havethe opportunity to attend better schools with their whitecounterparts. In the same way, for substantial advancement, the stateshould consider refurbishing tax policy to allow further distributionof public resources evenly across the entire New York, instead ofdirecting the health and education facilities to the richestcommunities in the region (Alcorn, 2012).
BestAlternative Solution to New York’s Health Disparity
Severalinterventions are put in place to address health disparities.However, the best alternative intervention that has a huge influenceon the nursing profession is the ability to comprehend the patientsand or personalities of other races’ social-economic situations.According to Cerdá et al. (2014), understanding social determinantsof individuals assist nurses in predicting the possibilities ofdeveloping long-lasting diseases in a person. Furthermore,contributing social factors result in poorer inhabitants in New YorkCity, thus, the emerging of different types of chronic illnesses, forexample, diabetes, cancer, stroke, as well as heart attack. As aresult, minority communities might succumb to chronic disease unlikethe majority group (whites). Based on the reasons mentioned above,New York City Health Department, through nurses, needs to embraceinterventions to minimize the influence of social factors in thehealthcare outcome to address health disparities (Alcorn, 2012).
Moreover,to address health inequality effectively, socio-economic aspects andracial segregation should be discouraged within public clinics andother health environments that practice high health disparities basedon race race, ethnic minorities, disadvantaged socio-economicpersonalities, and or medically underserved patients in New Yorkshould be primary areas of concern. Alcorn (2012) asserted thatnurses play a significant role in handling social and economicfactors in different ways, i.e. both directly and indirectly.Correspondingly, nursing assists in the prevention and treatment ofsickness, as well as advocacy in the medical care of each and everyperson and or population. For that reason, nursing can address healthinequality to improve health outcomes of millions of New Yorkers whostay below the poverty line by assisting them to alleviate some ofthe awful effects of poverty (Alcorn, 2012).
Healthdisparities in New York are well documented the burden ofsicknesses, as well as death amongst New Yorkers, is highly coupledwith poverty, poor education and or race and ethnicity. Additionally,circumstances that impact health, for instance, accessibility tomedical care and poor housing are affiliated to these influences aswell. Irrespective of the actual mechanisms through which poverty orrace and ethnicity affect health care, disparity is wanting.Therefore, it is pivotal for community organizations, advocacygroups, and government agencies and or medical practitioners to lookfor a way to improve health among the New Yorkers while reducinghealth inequality. For instance, a study is needed through anaccurate valuation of various designs and measurement to reduceethnic and cultural inequalities in medical care in New York. To sumup, health care service solutions in collaboration withsocio-economic interventions are likely to play an important part inreducing health inequality in racial and ethnic medical disparities.Last of all, health practitioners need goals with reasonable timeduration with the help of the government through the cessation ofpoliticizing health disparities amidst the challenges faced whilepromoting equity by lowering health inequality.
Alcorn,T. (2012). Redefining public health in New York City. TheLancet, 379(9831),2037-2038.
Cerdá,M., Tracy, M., Ahern, J., & Galea, S. (2014). Addressingpopulation health and health inequalities: the role of fundamentalcauses. Americanjournal of public health, 104(S4),S609-S619.
Tulchinsky,T. H., & Varavikova, E. A. (2014). Thenew public health.Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.: Academic Press.