Heart Attack

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Oneof the busiest and most hardworking organs in the human body is theheart performing the tasks of pumping blood through the blood vesselsthat are in the body’s circulatory system (Brunnholzl 151). Assuch, in the course of a person’s life, it ensures that all thebody parts and are enriched with oxygenated blood and essentialnutrients via a network of arteries (Doneen and Bale 245). Thesegments that receive purified air include tissues that are connectedto a network of arteries. The tissues in this category also includeheart muscles, which are always supplied with a plentiful supply ofoxygenated blood that makes the heart to perform its functionswithout failure (Brunnholzl 330). The walls of the hearts are calledmyocardium, and they always ensure that there is enough energy tomake the heart carry out its functions efficiently. Consequently,when there is a limited or no supply of oxygen in the walls, a heartattack, or myocardial infarction occurs. The walls encounter tissuedeath because there is a loss of oxygen, a situation that causes asignificant damage to the wall’s portion.

CoronaryArtery Disease is one of the major causes of heart attack, and itcomprises a complex phenomenon known as atherosclerosis, or “thehardening of the heart” according to layman’s language(Brunnholzl 459). It makes the arteries to be blocked so that thereis a disruption in the supply of oxygen-rich blood. Myocardialinfarction is one of the most serious outcomes that is resulted byatherosclerosis, and its occurrence is supported by two forms ofatherosclerosis, firstly, the situation whereby the plaque developstears or fissures, making the blood platelets to form around the sitewith the intention of sealing off the plaque (Doneen and Bale 290).In the case that the blood clot forms a layer that blocks the flow ofoxygenated blood to the walls of the heart, myocardial infarction isbound to occur. The second situation is whereby there is a gradualbuild-up of plaque that leads to the blockage of arteries resultingfrom atherosclerosis (Brunnholzl 310). A heart attack occurs in thissituation because the muscles of the heart are prevented fromaccessing oxygen-rich blood.

Anginaand Acute Coronary Syndrome

Theprimary symptom that is associated with coronary artery disease iscalled Angina, and it always reflects as a chest pain. There are twoforms of Angina, including Stable Angina and Unstable Angina(Brunnholzl 451). The first circumstance is known as a predictablechest pain that is controlled by a set of medications and lifestylechanges, such as consistent physical exercise and low doses ofaspirin. The second one (Unstable Angina) is relatively extremelycomplicated than the first one and is revealed as an intermediatestage between heart attack and Stable Angina (Brunnholzl 451).According to Doneen and Bale, it is a major part of a medicalcondition called Acute Coronary Syndrome (61). Acute CoronarySyndrome is a sudden and severe heart complication that is not fullyblown to be classified as heart attack, even though medicalpractitioners always tie vigorous and aggressive treatment to it(Doneen and bale 501). It comes in two vital forms, such as UnstableAngina, which is a persistent and serious pain around the chestcavity, but the blood tests conducted are yet to associate it with aheart attack. Secondly, there is the NSTEMI (Non ST-segment ElevationMycocardial), or at times referred to as the Non-Q-wave (Brunnholzl600). The condition is confirmed when ECGs and blood tests do notindicate the common type of heart attack that is evidenced by thethickening of the heart muscles. What is more, the injury that isexperienced in the arteries is relatively less severe with respect toa full-blown heart attack. As per the previous discussion, patientswho are diagnosed or have suffered from Acute Coronary Syndrome inthe past are at a higher risk of suffering from a heart attack(Brunnholzl 650). In order to gauge the level of risk that ispresented by the condition, medical practitioners always carry outvarious tests, explore a patient’s medical history, and thepresence of certain elements to make the predictions. It isimperative to note that the severity of any chest pains does notnecessarily insinuate that there is a great damage to the heart.

HeartAttack, First Aid, and Medical Care

Thereare a set of common features that are associated with heart attack,including a persistent and uncomfortable pressure that reveals itselfas a squeezing and numb pain at the chest’s center (Doneen and Bale701). The discomforting pain could also be moving towards theshoulders, from the center of the chest, rising up to the jaws,shoulders, neck, teeth, or even the two arms. A patient could alsosuffer from breath difficulties, dizziness, lightheadedness,sweating, nausea, and even fainting. During the onset of a HeartAttack, the patient could suffer from an acute chest pain thatpersists for 15 minutes, and in some cases, it could be associatedwith no symptoms at all. All in all, the majority of people whosuffer from this medical condition could be served with somepre-signs weeks, days, or even hours before the incidence. There aresome universal sets of actions that are recommended for patients withregards to rapid care in the case that an unexpected takes place. The first step is to call 911 or any number thatrepresents the local emergency contacts. Patients should be extremelycareful not to ignore any slight symptoms that come with for more than six minutes. When there is no contact found that couldconnect to local emergency providers, those around the vicinityshould ensure that the patient secure the fastest means of transportto a health institution. The patient should not be the ones to drivethemselves, only if the initiative is a matter of last resort. It isbecause of the personal and general risk when a patientresolves to drive themselves while seeking medical attention. Anothercritical step is to swallow or chew an aspirin unless there areallergies that come with the use of the medicine or if it is againstthe advice of a medical practitioner. All in all, actions should befocused on seeking the aid of medical experts to reduce the risksthat come with delayed treatment for patients. Anotherdrug that such patients should take is the Nitroglycerin, and it isalways prescribed by health experts during their routine visits. Itis advisable not to borrow somebody else’s nitroglycerin, but allconsumption should be guided by the advice of the doctors.

Whena occurs and there is delayed response, the victim couldfall into unconsciousness and this calls for the delivery of CPR.After contacting the emergency contacts, the practitioners coulddirect the first aider to carry out a Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) within the shortest time possible. Another option aside fromthe mouth-mouth resuscitation when the helper is not conversant withCPR is to apply the gentle chest compressions at the rate of onehundred compressions per minute. It is crucial to strictly follow thedirections of the dispatcher so that the whole process of saving thepatient’s life is successful. The first aider should also evaluatethe technique of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) it couldrealize significant contributions when it comes to an unconsciouspatient. The procedure (AED) should commence immediately the deviceis set up. After the machine has measured the level of risk that thepatient faces, the helper should follow the instructions that itissues in the course of taking care of the patient.


A occurs when the walls of the heart are deprived ofoxygenated blood that makes them be damaged, thus cutting short thesupport to the heart. The condition is associated with some symptoms,such as persistent chest pains, sweating, dizziness, and others. Careshould be taken to contact the nearest health institution for a HeartAttack victim. They should be encouraged to swallow aspirin as atemporarily relieve drug as they await treatment.


Brunnholzl,Karl. The Sutra. New Jersey: Snow Lion Publications.2012. Print Source.

Doneen,Amy and Bale, B. Beat the Gene. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press. 2014. Print Source.