Human Biology

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Chapter 6

Oncedeath has occurred, there is no ATP production as there is no oxygentaken in. Rigor mortis therefore, sets in once the energy (ATP) usedto break down the acti-myosin cross bridge which causes musclecontraction is lacking. The muscles, therefore, become stiff.


Thecause of meningitis is inflation of the meninges in the brain orthose covering the spinal cord. To correctly provide the actualdiagnosis, a lumbar puncture or an analysis of the Cerebral SpinalFluid (CSF) is required. The CSF is present in the brain, and spinalcord as compared to an analysis of blood samples since blood isabsent in the spinal fluid (Starr &amp McMillan, 2013).


CriticalThinking 1

PresidentJohn F. Kennedy`s weight loss was brought about by the lack ofhormone Cortisol which is results to Addison`s disease. The lack ofthis hormone results in weight loss due to increases fat breakdownand general muscle weakness which is a result of an increased proteinbreakdown, both ostensibly driven by a subsequent decrease in insulinlevels.

Addison’sdisease results in a low production of aldosterone, when aldosteronelevels fall too low in the body, the kidneys become unable toregulate the salt and water balance which causes the blood pressureto fall.

CriticalThinking 2

Thedisorder whose symptoms are depression, sluggishness, and intoleranceto cold is hyperthyroidism.

The pituitary gland is responsible for the production of hormoneswhich are involved in the direction of processes or in thestimulation of other glands to produce another hormone. The anteriorpituitary gland produces several hormones one such is theThyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In the event of an infection suchas hyperthyroidism, the pituitary gland releases less TSH thus makingthe thyroid gland overreact and produce a lot of thyroxine (T4). Ahigh level of T4 results in symptoms such as sluggishness,depression, and intolerance to cold which further confirm thedoctor`s diagnosis of a malfunctioning anterior pituitary gland asthose are symptoms of hyperthyroidism.


Indeed,Lewis Wolpert was correct in his claim. During gastrulation, thethree germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) move into theembryo and position themselves correctly ((Starr &amp McMillan,2013). Therefore, if the gastrulation process goes wrong, theindividual would not survive as different parts of the body would endup in the wrong place. In other cases, external factors such aschemicals can affect this process. The affected embryo may develop,but once the fetus is born, it has abnormalities.


Agingpredisposes to cancer infection mainly due to the weak immune systemof the individual (Starr &amp McMillan, 2013). A healthy immunesystem destroys some cancer cells, but as we age, the immune responselowers thus making the individual accumulate more and more mutations.The accumulated mutating genes result to the development of cancer.


Genetherapy may not be effective in correcting the defections incheetahs. The process is more successful in the treatment of tumorsother than in germline therapy (Starr &amp McMillan, 2013).Currently, there is little success in the gene therapy since mostcorrected defects reoccur after some time. Moreover, the treatmentprocess can fail thereby result in more harm. Therefore, gene therapymay not restore the cheetah numbers at the moment.


Starr,C., &amp McMillan, B. (2013).&nbspHuman biology. CengageLearning.