Human Communication

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Humancommunication refers to the creation and response to oral, spoken,written, signed or gestured information among people. It encompassesthe use of codes called language perceived via the graphical systems,proprioceptive, tangible and acoustic and directed through discourseand speech, gesticulations, manual signs and inscription. Thiscommunication may also contain gustatory senses, vestibular andolfactory. The knowledge and skills of communication determine manythings in a person’s proficient and personal lives since it impactsthe attitudes and behaviors of others in reaction to the same.Self-perception, on the other hand, refers to the way a person thinksabout themselves. It is the way people fathom their own outlooks anddogmas with regard to their conduct in particular circumstances. Thisessay will analyze a review of two chapters, 1 and 2 of Adler, Rodmanbook of Understanding and self-perception andcommunication.


Theprocedure of making significance over figurative relationsencompasses human communication. The mode of exchanging informationbetween two or more people is a progressive and unending process. Itis arbitrary and symbolic and enables people to reason and converseabout ancient times, elucidate the present and wonder about thefuture. There are various types of communication, including smallgroup, mass, intrapersonal and interpersonal/dyadic. Interpersonalcommunication involves people who have a kind of connection. Throughthis communication, one can institute, uphold, or abolish personalinteractions. It can be face-face or through electrical networks.Intrapersonal communication is communication with the self. Itinvolves personal dialogue within a person which enables one to learnmore about themselves and judge well. Small group communicationincludes clusters of between five to ten people and can occurface-to-face. They aid interaction needs such as care, friendship,and sustenance. Mass communication is from one source to manyreceivers, who might be dispersed universally [ CITATION Jar13 l 1033 ].

Thepurpose of communication is to gratify individual, collective, bodilyand concrete needs. The process can be illustrated as transactional,involving a concurrent interaction with others, or linear model,involving a communication to another. Transactional hascorrespondents using a response that can be detected and interpreted.Linear has a sender encrypting a message through canals that thereceiver decrypts with the assistance of areas with sharedproficiencies or surroundings. Effective communicators havecompetency. This refers to the skill to accomplish one’s aims in away that improves the relationship. Competent communicatorsunderstand there is no one perfect way to relate. Settings andassociations affect competent communication as a manner throughexperimental and fault scrutiny. These communicators select from awide variety of conduct and alternatives. They pick out the mostsuitable comportment with compassion and a gratitude of the other’sviewpoint. Principled, well-informed correspondents identify mutualmisapprehensions. Communication does not need broad indulgence eitherdoes it elucidate all glitches. It is neither good nor bad since itrelies wholly on the receiver’s understanding [ CITATION Adl13 l 1033 ].

TheSelf, Perception, and Communication

Ourperception of others forms the way we converse with them. Severalissues affect this opinion. They include our traditional upbringing,our capability to identify with, our propensity to make numerousperceptual mistakes, our personal proficiencies with people, ourachievement at creating collective narratives via communication.Narratives refer to the stories we construct, as well as otherpeople, to make logic of our own domain. Conceding tales createchallenging communication since they offer a basis for explainingbehavior and shaping its future. Shared narratives may beappropriate, but difficult to attain. Understanding and concurrenceare interfered with by the problem of attribution, which refers tothe process of ascribing sense to conduct. Self-concept is an innerimage of ourselves, whereas personality is the outlook of othersabout us. People possess different personality traits: smart/stupid,lazy/energetic among others. Deeds are not always steady, but rather,vary from one condition to another. They determine how others willtake in an individual’s nature and how they react to him/her.Self-concept not only defines how we interact in the present, butinfluence our actions and those of others prospectively [ CITATION Jar13 l 1033 ].

Aself-fulfilling prophecy occurs when an individual’s anticipationof an aftermath makes it more probable to happen than or else. Thereare two types of these prophecies one is when one’s expectationinfluences their behavior and the second when outlooks of a persondirect the activities of others. There are communication strategiesthat people use to influence how others perceive them. They arecalled Impression Management. The reasons for managing impressions isto be able to abide by the social rules. These maintain ourperformance in different sceneries. Another reason is to achieveindividual goals. We can also manage impression to meet the standardrequirements we have in society, such as love, control, attachmentamong others.

Impressionscan be managed in various ways. These are Face-Face controlling.Here, communicators can cope with their anterior in three wayslocale, Advent, and routine. The second one is in intervenedcommunication. This gives the communicator the freedom to choose whatinformation to convey or hide [ CITATION Adl13 l 1033 ].


Otherpeople’s insight is usually misleading and discriminatory.Emotional stimuli, as well as social ones, affect perception. Empathyis a valuable tool that enables communicators to understand othershence, improving communication efficiently. The way an individualviews him/herself is subjective to how they see other people.Impression controlling involves planned communication intended toaffect other people’s viewpoint of an individual. Individualitymanagement alternatively is collective. Impression management ensuesfor two reasons. One, to follow communal guidelines and agreementsand two, to attain a diversity of gratified and interpersonal goals.In either case, communicators participate in generating impressionsby dealing with their mode, look and the locations of relations.Impression management is a reliable method of communication sinceeach has an assortment of aspects to present.


Rodman, A. (2013). Understanding . In A. Rodman, Understanding / Edition 12 (p. 528). USA: Oxford University Press.

Saramäki, J. (2013). Persistence of social signatures in human communication. 1-6.

Human Communication

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Humancommunication is the process of sending and receiving of spoken,written and gestured info among individuals. It also includes the useof sign linguistic, visual systems, generated voices, writing, manualsigns, and gestures to generate meanings within and across differentsettings, cultures and channels. Human communication enablesindividuals to understand and shape their interactions in all aspectsof personal lives.

Thefollowing are characteristics of communication. First, communicationis symbolic in communication, symbols are used to represents ideas,emotions and events to make communication possible. Throughlinguistic rules and customs, the symbols that are used generatemeanings during the passing and receiving of information in variouscontexts. The symbols that are used in communication are gestures andbody language. Therefore, the arbitrary nature of symbols is the mostimportant feature of symbols (Adler &amp Rodman2012).

Secondly,communication is rational, not individual communication is not apersonal activity but it is a process that individuals engage in toconvey the intended information. Psychologist Kenneth Gergen pointsout that the success of communication depends on interaction withpartners. Since communication is rational, it is not theresponsibility of an individual to make it successive process but itis a mutual obligation.

Thirdly,communication is a continuous process it is an endless and ongoingprocess because when there are no communication human practices stopsto exist. Therefore, individuals communicate with one another due tothe fact that human being are social creatures who depend on eachother. For instance, the way someone speaks or communicates to his orher friends will always shape the way these friends behave to him orher.

Thereare models that describe what happens when individual communicate andthey include linear communication model that provides an injectionin this model, a sender encodes thoughts and emotions into some kindsof messages and then expresses them to a receiver who interprets theinformation. The most vital component of linear model is thecommunication mode in which the information is conveyed betweenindividuals. The channels used in this case include telephone, voicemails, e-mail, and faxes. Likewise, noise is a factor to effectivecommunication since it makes hearing difficult. Biological factors inthe receiver or sender such as sickness and fatigue may also hindereffective communication and diverse socio-economic and culturalpractices may affect individual conversation.

Thetransactional model illustrates that sending and receivinginformation is concurrent unlike in linear model where the sender andreceiver seem to be separated. In transactional model communicatorsare able to receive, interpret and reply to another individual’sactions. Therefore, the apparent reaction of the receiver to asender’s message is referred to feedback. Some channels used inlinear communication models like e-mail and text messages are notconsidered to be immediate. Unlike the assumption of linear modelthat communication is the encoding and putting ideas into a symbolicmanner such as words is also questionable, the transactional modelsubstitutes the term encodes with response since it defines bothdeliberate and unplanned activities that are demonstrated and takento meaning.

Withinthe field of human interaction different types of communication occurin different settings. First, intrapersonal communication where onecommunicates to himself by internal use of language and thoughts.Second, interpersonal communication that occurs in an individualthrough channels like telephone, text messages, e-mails and socialmedia. Third, small group communication that every individualparticipate actively with other members. Fourth, organizationalcommunication where collective activities of a society arecoordinated to achieve goals.


Self-conceptis a set of comparatively steady insights that each and everyindividual holds about himself. These includes an individual’sconception of what is exceptional about himself and what makesindividuals appear alike and diverse. A significant component of theself-concept is confidence which has the influence the manner inwhich we communicate. For instance, people who have high self-esteemare likely to communicate effectively and confidently as compared tothose with low self-esteem. Similarly, self-esteem reflects thecharacters of an individual that are determined by genetics.

Self-perceptionis the way individuals understand their own attitudes and principlesbased on their actions in given circumstances. People sort out andmake sense of others’ behavior in three steps. First, selection ofinformation that he will attend to. In this case, both external andinternal factors often determine how we perceive others. Secondly, anorganization where the selected data is arranged in a meaningfulmanner in order to make sense also influence self-perception.Thirdly, interpretation where the selected and organized perceptionsare interpreted in order to make some sense.

Additionally,communication describes how individuals develop an image ofthemselves and the way they think others view them. If a person viewshimself as nervous he will probably behave in the nervous waythroughout the nervous behavior is likely to influence howindividuals view the personality of others. Communication tends to bea self-fulling prophecy because an individual’s expectations oroutcomes are more likely to occur (Adler &amp Rodman, 2012).

Throughoutthe chapters, I have been able to learn that communication is acomplex process as many people think that it is a skill thatindividuals gain without training. Equally, I have also been able tounderstand that we all ought to recognize some misconceptions ofcommunication so that we don’t fall into trouble whilecommunicating. According to Hassan &amp Muhammed (2016),self-monitoring can be problematic hence perception mistakes canaffect the way we view and communicate with others. Moreover, I havegained depth insight on how I should perceive myself and communicatewith others acquiring the skills and strategies for identitymanagement will help individuals understand dimensions ofself-concept.

Inconclusion, communication is not just words but it is a mixture ofwritten, spoken and body language that promotes daily activities ofhuman beings in different settings. Personality as well plays a rolein the communication process. An individual must possesscharacteristics that will enable him feel worthy and more willing toconvey intended information. On the other hand, perception plays avital role on how individuals think about themselves and others sinceperception of oneself and others influence the communication process.


Adler,Rodman. B, (2012). Understanding . OxfordUniversity Press.

Hasan&amp MuhammedR. (2016). Understanding from your own context.