INTERGRATED MULTICUST AODV (MAODV) 5
IntergratedMulticust AODV (MAODV)
IntergratedMulticust AODV (MAODV)
Anad hoc on-Demand vector (AODV) is a routing protocol that links themobile node and the internet host by relaying the communicationbetween the utilities. Over the period, due to the variouslimitations that are associated to the use of the AODV such as longdelays, slow packet delivery, high number of control overheads andmany others, a number of ways of liking the mobile nodes and theinternet have been discovered. It has resulted into the developmentof MAODV which has got an improved functionality to solve theproblems associated with the AODV (Hamidian, 2002). In this paper,the main aim is therefore to look at how proactive gateway discovery,reactive gateway discovery and/or hybrid gateway discovery can bemodified with MAODV routing protocol multicast. But, first I willbegin by discussing gateway discovery.
Gatewayis basically the interconnectivity between a mobile ad hoc networks(MANET) and internet node. Redesigning the AODV in order toaccommodate the capabilities of the multicast gateways systems can bedone through a series of procedures. Firstly, it begins by convertingthe gateway into a form that will enable it to be absorbed into thegroups of messages and also eject itself from the group once all thehosts systems have withdrawn from the group. The gateway is alsodesigned in a way that it will be able to copy characteristics of theIGMP that is located on the gateway’s wireless interface. The IGMPPackets are then injected into the IP stack to give the direction tothe location of the node for the network device. A single node isthen converted into one packet. To understand the applicability ofthe gateway discovery we must first understand the various ways ofgateway connectivity.
Itis called proactive gateway since the configuration between themobile node and the internet is initiated by the gateway itself. Thisis done by the gateway periodically initiating an advertising message(GWADV) within predetermined intervals called advertising intervals.To avoid flooding of the interphase, which is associated with thegateway, the advertising period is carefully chosen. The receivingmobile node then create (first time) or updates (subsequent) routeentry for the message and rebroadcasts it. Several retransmissionsare required in order for all the MANET to receive the advertisingmessage which may lead to unwanted duplicated advertisements. Themajor advantage is the fact that it is possible for the mobile nodeto initiate a takeover before it loses internet connection (Hamidian,2002).
Unlikein proactive gateway discovery, the configuration is created by themobile node that is to create or update the pathway to a gateway.Thus, the mobile nodes broadcasts a PREOQ_I to the IP address of thegateway in a MANET. This ensures that only the gateway receive andprocess this PREQ_I message, while the mobile nodes function is tobroadcasts the message without answering them. The gateway receivesthe PREQ_I message and reacts by broadcasting a PREP_I message withthe IP address of the gateway. The major advantage of this interphaseis that there is no flooding as evidenced in the proactive discoverysince the control messages are controlled by the need for informationby the mobile nodes. The disadvantage is that the changeover cannotbe initiated until a mobile node loses its internet connection hencedisruption in the system.
Thegiven gateway has been developed to help in reducing the associatedlimitations of the proactive and reactive gateways. The givenprotocol is made in such a way that it adjusts to the new topologywhich involves using the alternate paths to avoid fading of the data.The paths are occasionally validated to ensure the high quality ofthe information through it. To avoid the traffic of information alongthe paths, the information on the state of the channel is sent sothat an alternative path can be used to avoid traffic (Hamidian,2002). The use of hybrid has therefore improved the performance ofthe network.
Theadoption of the MAODV multicast has therefore improved variousaspects on the transmission of information between the MANETprotocols and the internet sources such as delay time, data loss andthe control overheads. The proactive and reactive protocols have beenconveniently combined in to hybrid gateway to increase the speed ofthe parameters that are responsible for the quality of service.
Hamidian,A., Körner, U., & Nilsson, A. (2004, June). Performance ofinternet access solutions in mobile ad hoc networks. In InternationalWorkshop of the EuroNGI Network of Excellence (pp. 189-201). SpringerBerlin Heidelberg.