Introduction to ESL Literacy Skills Appendix A

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Introductionto ESL Literacy Skills


TheSheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)

Observer: Teacher:


Grade: Class/Topic: Introduction to ESL Literacy Skills

ESLLevel:2 Lesson:Single-day

TotalPoints Possible: 96 (Subtract 4 points for each NA) given: &shy&shy&shy(86)

TotalPoints Earned: Percentage Score: 89%

Directions:highlightthe number that best reflects what you observe in a sheltered lesson.You may give a score from 0-4 (or NA on selected items). Cite under“Comments” specific examples of the behaviors observed.


&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy&shy 4 3 2 1 0

  1. Content objectives Content objectives No clear defined

clearlydefined, for students implied content objective


reviewed with


Comments:Theteacher had a well-planned teaching strategy with a planned studentinvolvement. She also explained what the course expected the studentsto have gained at the end of the session.

4 3 2 1 0

2. LanguageObjectives N/A LanguageObjectives languageobjectives

clearlydefined,displayed forstudents impliedNo clearly defined for students

andreviewed with student

Comments:Theteacher explained what she was to teach during the session. She alsoasked some questions on the previous reading to make the students’mind prepared to learn new concepts.

4 3 2 1 0

3. Content concepts Content concepts Content concepts

appropriatefor age and somewhat inappropriate for

educationalback ground appropriatefor age age and educational

levelof students andeducational level level of students


Comments:The teacher usedsimple vocabulary and introduced a subject which the studentsenjoyed. The topic taught was not advanced and was easy for thestudents to comprehend.

4 3 2 1 0

4.Supplementarymaterial Someuse of Nouse of

usedto a high degree, supplementary supplementary

makingthe lesson clear materials materials

andmeaningful (e.g.,

computerprograms, graphs,


Comments:Theteacher used some visual examples such as chart and also illustratedsome points using fellow students in a cheerful manner.

.4 3 2 1 0

5.Adaptationsof Someadaptation of Nosignificant

content(e.g., contenttoall levels of adaptationof content

text,assignment) studentproficiency toall levels of student

toall levels of proficiency


Comments:Theteacher allocated some small assignments to the students. Thelearners gained much of their knowledge from classroom teachings.

4 3 2 1 0

6.Meaningfulactivities Meaningfulactivities Nomeaningfulactivities

thatintegrate lesson thatintegrate lesson that integrate lesson concepts

concepts( e.g., interviews, conceptsbut provide with language practices

letterwriting,simulations, few language practice

models)withlanguage opportunitiesfor reading,

practiceopportunities writing,listening,

forreading,writing,listening, and/or speaking

and/or speaking

Comments:Studentsengaged in some learning groups to discuss in the context of theirstudy. They also practiced the writing skills taught and exchangedtheir written materials for review among the groups formed.


4 3 2 1 0

7.Conceptsexplicitly Conceptsloosely Concepts not

linkedto students’ linkedto students’ explicitlylinked

backgroundexperience background to students’

experiences background


Comments:Studentsexpressed their enthusiasm to learn, and the number of questionsdecreased. It showed that the students had some basic background onthe topic covered.

4 3 2 1 0

8.Linksexplicitly made Fewlinks made No links made

betweenpast learning betweenpast learning between past

andnew concepts andnew concepts learning and new


Comments:Mostof the questions asked by the students majored on the past learningsession. Students also had gained the knowledge from the previousdiscussion which had laid a foundation of the current topic.

4 3 2 1 0

9.Keyvocabulary Keyvocabulary Keyvocabulary

emphasized(e.g., introduced,but notintroduced or

introduced,written, notemphasized emphasized

repeated,and highlighted

forstudents to see)

Comments:Theteacher had already introduced some of the vocabularies in theprevious context hence she insisted less on the important concepts asthe students had knowledge of the vocabularies. It increasedcomprehensive rate of the students as they enjoyed learning newconcept.


4 3 2 1 0

10.Speechappropriate Speechsometimes Speechinappropriate

forstudents’ inappropriatefor students’ for students’ proficiency

proficiencylevels proficiencylevel level

(e.g.,slower rate,

enunciation,and simple,

sentencestructure for


Comments:Thetutor used some simple words and short clear sentences for thestudents to understand. She also had good pronunciation of wordswhich never made confusion among the students during the learningsession. In addition, the tutor used a slow tone which made itpossible for every student to grasp what she was saying.

4 3 2 1 0

11.Clearexplanation Unclearexplanation Noexplanationof academic

ofacademic tasks ofacademic tasks tasks

Comments:Therewas good explanation of the students’ expectation of what to havegained after the end of the session. The teacher explained less onthe assignments she gave to the learners.

4 3 2 1 0

12.Avariety of techniques Sometechniques No techniquesused

usedto make content usedto make to make

conceptsclear (e.g., contentconcepts conceptsclear

modeling,visuals, clear




Comments:Therewere some visual graphics and charts at the front which were used toillustrate some points. The teacher also involved the students in thediscussions through asking some questions.

4 3 2 1 0

13.Ample opportunities Inadequateopportunities Noopportunities provided

providedfor student providedfor students to forstudents to use

touse learningstrategies uselearningstrategies learningstrategies

Comments:Thestudents demonstrated some understanding on the content indicated inthe charts at the front of the classrooms. However, the teacher didnot give them time to ask some questions they needed clarifications.

4 3 2 1 0

14.Scaffoldingtechniques Scaffoldingtechniques Scaffoldingtechniques

consistentlyused, assisting occasionallyused notused

andsupporting student

understanding(e.g., think-


Comments:Theuse of the charts helped a lot in improving the studentsunderstanding of the concepts taught.

4 3 2 1 0

15.Avariety of questions or Infrequentquestions No questions of tasks that

tasksthat promote ortasks that promote promote higher-order

higher-order higher-order thinkingskills

thinkingskills(e.g., literal, thinking skills

analytical,and interpretive


Comments:Thetutor asked the students some questions meant to improve theircritical thinking capacity on the effective ways of communication.

4 3 2 1 0

16.Frequentopportunities Interactionmostly Interactionteacher

forinteractionand teacher-dominated dominatedwith no

discussionbetween withsome opportunities for students

teacher/studentand opportunitiesfor to discuss lesson concepts-

amongstudents , which studentsto talk

encourageelaborate aboutor question

responsesabout lesson lessonconcepts


Comments:Thestudents were given time to ask questions and clarifications on theareas they did not understand clearly. Groups among the students alsohelped in comprehensive understanding as they could share the ideasamong them.

4 3 2 1 0

17.Groupingconfigurations Groupingconfigurations Groupingconfigurations

Supportlanguage and content unevenlysupport donot support the language

Objectivesof the lesson thelanguage and content andcontent objectives


Comments:Theteacher used some groups but did not give provision for the use ofnative languages which could have made understanding of the concepteasier.

4 3 2 1 0

18.Sufficient waittime Sufficientwaittime Sufficientwait time for

Forstudents responses forstudents responses studentresponses not

Consistentlyprovided occasionallyprovided provided

Comments:Theteacher gave a little time for some students to ask questions andgive their responses. She mostly concentrated on some few studentswho were slow learners.

4 3 2 1 0

19. Ampleopportunities Someopportunities No opportunities for

forstudents to clarify forstudents to clarify studentsto clarifykey

keyconcepts in L1 as keyconceots in L1 concepts in L1

neededwith aide, peer,

orL1 text

Comments:Somestudents who were slow learners received more time for askingquestions to clarify a point.

Practice&amp Application


4 3 2 1 0

20. Hands-on materials Fewhands-on materials Nohands-on materials and

and/or manipulatives and/or manipulatives /ormanipulative provided

providedfor students to providedfor students to forstudents to practice using

practiceusing new content practiceusing new newcontent knowledge

knowledge contentknowledge

Comments:Theteacher sued a chart which had less content on the in the session.She could have used several charts each with a different concept forthe easy understanding of the idea by the student.

4 3 2 1 0

21. Activities provided for Activitiesprovided Noactivities provided

Studentsto apply forstudents to apply forstudents to applycontent

Contentand Language eithercontentor language andlanguage knowledge

Knowledge knowledgein the classroom inthe classroom

Comments:Theteacher asked the students some questions which they were required tothink critically from the knowledge they acquired.

4 3 2 1 0

22.Activities integrate Activitiesintegrate Activitiesdo not

alllanguage skills somelanguageskills integratelanguageskills

(i.e.,reading, writing,

Listening,and speaking)

Comments:Theteacher engaged in some oral narratives with the students with theaim of enhancing the practical application of what they had learned.She corrected the students in case they made some errors during thespeech.


4 3 2 1 0

23.Contentobjectives Contentobjectives Content

clearlysupported somewhatsupported objectivesnot supported by

bylesson delivery bylesson delivery lesson delivery

Comments:Theuse of the charts helped in sound delivery of the content of thetopic under study.

4 3 2 1 0

24.Languageobjectives Languageobjectives Language

clearlysupported somewhatsupported objectivesnot

bylesson delivery bylesson delivery supported by lesson delivery

Comments:Theteacher used simple sentences but failed to give the students sometime to interact in their native languages which could have made themunderstand better.

4 3 2 1 0

25.Studentsengaged Students engaged Studentsengaged

Approximately90% to approximately 70% of lessthan 50% of the period

100%of the period the period

Comments:Althoughthe teacher asked the students some questions, she majored on theslow learners leaving out the fast leaners. It could have been betterif she engaged the whole class which could have made her to movefaster. She received a low score on this issue.

4 3 2 1 0

26.Pacingofthe lesson Pacinggenerally Pacinginappropriate

appropriateto students’ appropriate,butat times tostudents’ ability levels

abilitylevels toofast or too slow

Comments:Thetutor made less use of the fast-learners in the class in enhancingthe slow learners’ abilities to grasp concepts. It made the sessionbe a little bit slow.

Review&amp Assessment

4 3 2 1 0

27.Comprehensive Unevenreviewof Noreview of key

Reviewof key keyvocabulary vocabulary


Comments:Theteacher reviewed the key vocabularies to emphasize on the key pointsat the end of the lesson. It acted as a summary of the whole sessionsince she reviewed key vocabularies on each concept.

4 3 2 1 0

28.Comprehensivereview Unevenreviewof Noreviewof the

Ofkey content concepts keycontent concepts content concepts

Comments:Reviewingof the key vocabularies in each concept made it easier for acomprehensive review of each concept.

4 3 2 1 0

29.Regular feedback Inconsistent Nofeedback provided

Providedto students feedbackprovided tostudents on their output

Ontheir output ( e.g., tostudents on their output



Comments:Theteacher gave feedback on the students’ assignments. She alsocorrected the students’ mistakes as the session progressed.

4 3 2 1 0

30.Assessmentof student Assessmentsof student No assessment of student

Comprehensionand learning comprehensionand learning comprehension and

Ofchecking, group responses) ofsome lesson objectives learningoflesson objectives

Throughoutthe lesson

Comments:Theteacher gave frequent visits on the various groups formed by thestudents. She advised and gave the responses to the groups on thedifficult issues they encountered. It made her realize the commonmistakes and issues that the students did not understand. She was torepeat those areas in the next session.


Echevarría,J., Vogt, M., &amp Short, D. (2012). TheSIOP Model: Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners(4th ed.). Pearson.