JORUNALARTICLE REVIEW Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, anddirect and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead toviolence?
Aimof the study
Themain purpose of the study was to test the contradicting predictionsabout the correlation between self-views and aggressive behavior. Acombination of ego threat and high narcissism leading toexceptionally intense levels of aggressiveness was the mainprediction for the research (BradJ, & Roy F., 1998).The direct contribution of self-esteem to responses that wereaggressive was to be tested. The confinement of one’s response totheir ego being threaten from the effects of narcissism orself-esteem would also be evaluated. This was based on the beliefthat narcissists view social life in terms of a fight for dominancehence, they would readily attack any threat to their superiority.Displaced aggression would also be tested as a part of the study.
Independentand dependent variables
Theindependent variables were self-views, where their influence onaggression would be evaluated. The dependent variable is aggressivebehavior which is dependent on self-views which are the independentvariables (BradJ, & Roy F., 1998).
on how the study was conducted
Thestudy was divided into parts which were testing the varioushypothesis of the study. In the first study, self-esteem andnarcissism were measured. An evaluation based on either threateningor booting the participants’ ego was done. The aggression towardsthe individual delivering the evaluation was then measured. Data wascollected from 260 participants who were randomly selected. There wasalso a separate sample of 10 women and 10 men who participated in astudy manipulating validation (BradJ, & Roy F., 1998).
Thesecond study tried to replicate the effects of ego threat andnarcissism observed in the first study. It also tried measuringself-esteem differently to conclude whether it was better atobtaining significant effects as compared to the one used in thefirst study. There was also an evaluation on the level of aggressiontowards another person other than the assessor. The sample populationcomprised of 281 undergraduate students in psychology (BradJ, & Roy F., 1998).The same procedure was used by the evaluators in both the first andsecond study which were part of the main study to ensure consistency.
on the findings of the research
Thestudy was able to conclude that aggression had important likes toself-appraisal. People who had invested in impressive self-viewsemotionally were found to be most aggressive especially when theywere responding to a threat on their esteem (BradJ, & Roy F., 1998).The highest level of aggression was observed from a combination ofnarcissism and ego threat. The narcissists were most aggressive,especially when attacking to people who had given them a poorevaluation. The second study, through its mediation analysis, foundout that the level of aggression was determined by the perceiveddegree of threat. Narcissism and being aggressive towards a new thirdindividual did have any significant correlations (BradJ, & Roy F., 1998).The narcissist did not become extremely aggressive towards anotherperson other than the evaluator. The study was able to determine thatnarcissists would become aggressive due a significant and specificthreat to their ego. They were found to be more aggressive to anindividual that gave an insulting or negative evaluation.
Relationof the study to real life
Thestudy is important to help us understand the various causes ofaggressive behavior in humans mainly based on self-view (BradJ, & Roy F., 1998).It can help understand rage disorders that mainly lead to aggressivebehavior and hence it is very useful and easily applicable in thehealth care sector, especially by psychiatrists. The study isbeneficial to various people including patients as well as
otherprofessionals. It would be easier for doctors and counselors to helppatients suffering from aggressive behavior which in most cases leadto other problems including depression and physical injuries, withthe results from this study. Teachers in various type of institutionswill also have a better comprehension on how to deal students withdifferent personalities and in some cases portraying different levelsof aggression towards their fellow students and teachers as well. Thestudy was, therefore, important in contributing to the knowledge andbetter understanding of these particular issues and their relation toaggressiveness in people.
BradJ, B., & Roy F., B. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism,self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love orself-hate lead to violence? Bushman, Brad J.. . JournalOf Personality And Social Psychology, Jul, 1998. Pp. 219-229, Vol75(1),219-229.