L13 Individual Essay 100 Points: Nigeria
Nigeria was under British colonial rule from 1900 to 1960. The risein conflict between Northern and Southern Nigeria in the 19thcentury, led the Southern Yoruba to seek assistance from Britain todefeat the North (“The Commonwealth,” 2017). As a result, Britaincreated the Oil Rivers Protectorate in 1884, in collaboration withthe South. The Protectorate made it easier for Britain to graduallycontrol Nigeria and by 1900 the country became a British colony (“TheCommonwealth,” 2017).
The British used an indirect rule system, whereby traditional leaderscontinued to hold their leadership positions. However, the leadersowed allegiance to their colonial masters. Many Nigerians resistedthe indirect rule system and fought for the development of aconstitution that resulted in, a balance of power between Nigeriansand their colonizers. By 1959, Nigeria had a new government and thecountry gained full independence in 1960 (“The Commonwealth,”2017).
Type of Government
Nigeria has a federal republic type of government. Therefore, thecountry is governed by politicians who are voted into political powerby civilians. The federation has three arms of government that arethe executive, judiciary and legislature. The executive branch ofgovernment is headed by the president, “who is simultaneously thechief of state and head of government” (“The Embassy of Nigeria,”2017). The judiciary is made up of Nigeria’s courts, while thelegislature comprises of the Senate as well as the House ofRepresentatives (“The Embassy of Nigeria,” 2017).
Size and Demographic Composition of its Workforce
According to IIoani (2015), the total working population in Nigeriawas 73.4 million in 2015. The workforce comprises of individualsbetween the ages of 15 to 64 years. Although the workforce comprisesof both men and women, “Nigeria has one of the lowest rates ofemployed women, as percent of the total population, among selectedcountries with similar gross national income” (Onyejeli, 2012).Hence, the country has a higher male working population as comparedto women in the workforce. The highest population of the workforcecomprises of males aged between 45 and 49 years (Onyejeli, 2012).
Types of Industries
Nigeria’s workforce is engaged in different industry sectors. Thecountry has 12 industry sectors. The industries are agriculture,consumer goods, natural resources, industrial goods, healthcare,information and communication technology, construction, financialservices, oil and gas, utilities, services and conglomerates (“TheNigerian Stock Exchange,” 2016). The oil and gas industry sectorattracts the highest number of employees owing to the fact thatNigeria is an oil producing nation. Another sector with a highworkforce is agriculture.
The working population in Nigeria is allowed to belong to unions.The country’s constitution mandates that employees have “therights of free assembly and association and protects workers’rights to form or belong to trade unions” (“Export.gov,” 2016).The trade unions are divided into, the Nigeria Labor Congress thatrepresents workers employed in the blue collar sector and the TradeUnion Congress of Nigeria that represents white collar employees.However, the extent to which the workforce is unionized is low.
Research indicates that the “total union membership stands atroughly 7 million” (“Export.gov,” 2016). Union membership islow owing to the fact that Nigeria has a working population of 73.4million (IIoani, 2015). Most of the unionized employees work in thepublic sector. Nonetheless, trade unions exist in the private sector,although the number of employees unionized under the private sectoris low. Despite the fact that the constitution allows Nigeria’sworkforce to belong to unions, the government implements statutorylaws that limit workers’ rights to become unionized (“Export.gov,”2016).
Nigeria is among Africa’s largest economies. Thus, the countryattracts multinational companies. The three main multinationals thathave locations in Nigeria are Shell Petroleum Development Company,Mobil and Chevron (Obasanho, 2017). The three companies operate underthe oil and gas industry sector.
According to Simoes (2017), “Nigeria is the 49th largest exporteconomy in the world”. The country’s top exports are refined andcrude petroleum, petroleum gas, rough wood and cocoa beans. Nigeriamainly imports cars, refined petroleum, telephones, wheat andmedications. The dominant trading partners are India, Netherlands,Spain, South Africa and Brazil. The countries act as Nigeria’smajor export destinations. The country imports from India, China, theUnited States and Belgium.
Discovery about the Employment Conditions
An interesting finding about the employment conditions in Nigeria isthat women are less likely to be considered for an employmentopportunity as compared to men. In the course of this research, Idiscovered that the country has a high male working population ascompared to the female working population. The discovery issurprising considering that many countries have made an effort topush for gender equality, specifically in the workplace. In addition,over the years, more women have been able to attain educationalqualifications that allow them to compete for similar employmentpositions as men. Uneven gender representation resonates to the factthat, women may be discriminated against when seeking employmentopportunities in many Nigerian companies. The country’s governmentneeds to work towards ensuring that both men and women are subjectedto equal employment policies.
Export.gov. (2016). Nigeria labor. Retrieved fromhttps://www.export.gov/article?id=Nigeria-Labor
IIoani, F. A. (2015). Nigeria’s working population rises to 73.4m-NBS. Daily Trust. Retrieved fromhttps://www.dailytrust.com.ng/daily/index.php/business/56545-nigeria-s-working-population-rises-to-73-4m-nbs
Obasanho, S. (2017). Multinational companies in Nigeria. Naij.com.Retrieved from https://www.naij.com/1091735-multinational-companies-nigeria.html
Onyejeli, N. (2012). Nigeria: Country workforce profile. TheCenter on Aging and Work. Retrieved fromhttp://www.bc.edu/research/agingandwork/archive_pubs/CP22.html
Simoes, A. (2017). Nigeria. The Observatory of EconomicComplexity. Retrieved fromhttp://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/profile/country/nga/
The Commonwealth. (2017). Nigeria: History. Retrieved fromhttp://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/nigeria/history
The Embassy of Nigeria. (2017). Government and politics. Retrievedfrom http://www.nigerianrome.org/about-nigeria/government-politics
The Nigerian Stock Exchange. (2016). Industry sectors. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nse.com.ng/Issuers-section/listing-your-company/industry-sector