Maize Annotated bibliography

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MaizeAnnotated bibliography

MaizeAnnotated bibliography

Tenaillon, M. I., &amp Charcosset, A. (2011). A European perspective on maize history. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 334(3), 221-228. doi:doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2010.12.015

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069110003045

Thejournal explores the history of maize from a European perspectivethrough tracing the way the crop has existed in history up to what isnow one of the most domesticated and grown species in the world. Itis worth noting that maize forms one of the crops that is grown andutilized by mankind all over the globe. Tenaillon &amp Charcossettrace maize back to 8700 years in Mexico and its diffusion all overthe globe. The crop comes from the subspecies ZeaMays ssp. Parviglumiswhich existed 9000 years ago. However, the cultivated maize hadprofound morphological differences that had modifications in thearchitecture. From here the crop slowly diffused to America and otherregions of the world. The maize of today exists in four geneticstructures that are not easy to differentiate.

HoweverEuropean varieties of maize have been developed to hybrids sinceworld war two to adapt to European conditions. This is the reason whymaize has adapted to the plant cycle within the region it is planted.This is justified by QTL mapping studies which have showed floweringvariations are time controlled by 50–60 loci (QTL) with mildeffects [59, 60]. Photoperiod sensitivity [61] to or intrinsicearliness are affected by Loci which affects flowering to leading toincreased genetic variability with gene pools that have characterisedits diversification. Today varieties have been selected and groupedaccording to their adaptation characteristics. Being a scholarlyjournal the author understands that there may be other research thatmay have been done on this topic and thus they finish by declaringthat their work is not in any conflict of interest with otherauthors.

Mccann,J. (n.d.). Maize and Grace: History, Corn, and Africa’s NewLandscapes, 1500–1999. Boston University. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/S0010417501003486

Thearticle gives a historical account of maize and its flour in Africaand the way it diffused from Europe to Africa through mine fields.Maize was originally known as European food and food for the minesduring the beginning of the 20thcentury colonialNorthern Rhodesia.By 1930s Africa was changing her diets and farm plots with newseasonal tastes and textures from the new World. This led to quickspread of maize in Africa to become one of the staple foods. Thearticle lists African countries among the top three of the top 23countries that are the highest consumers of maize in national diets.Economists have related the impact of maize in Africa to the GreenRevolution of Asia in wheat/rice.Maize is eaten in several split personalities as either a vegetablecrop or a grain. This is supported by the different nutrients thatthe crop offers like Vitamins A, C &amp E and carbohydrates butlacks key nutrients like proteins,

Thismeans that maize was taken in Africa as a crop that boosts yields tomeet the increasing population of the century. Later the crop spreadwidely in Africa during the colonial time with exploitation of unusedland on the continent. After the fall of colonialism in Africa, maizewas planted as a subsistence crop across Africa by almost allcountries. Later, the crop underwent revolution in countries likeGhana, South Africa, Ethiopia and Equatorial Guinea. Today maizeforms one of the main staple foods on the continent with some growingit beyond subsistence levels. Governments of different Africancountries are investing resources to boost production of the grain tocushion hunger in their countries.

Wei,F., Coe, E., Nelson, W., Bharti, A. K., Engler, F., Butler, E., . . .Wing, R. (2005).Physicaland Genetic Structure of the Maize Genome Reflects its ComplexEvolutionary History. PLoS Genetics, Preprint (2007).doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030123.eor.http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.0030123

Cerealscrops like maize rice and wheat share a common ancestor howevermaize offers great insights in its study due to its increasedpresence all over the world. The evolution and spread of maize hasmade it one of cereal crops that provide reasons to study itsgenetics,evolution, and domestication. The authors approached the study by agenome sequence build framework and a sequence-ready fingerprint mapcovering 93.5% of the genome. It was also based on the correlationbetween maize and rice. The researcher used HindIII, EcoRI toconstructed three deep coverage large-insert BAC libraries covering30 genomes. Then agarose [29] and HICF [30, 31], methods were used tocross-confirm physical contigs of the maize from different regionsand sequence families. This led to 292,201 fingerprints automaticallyassembled using FPC [26] into 4,518 at a Sulston score of 1e_12 andtolerance of seven.

Thestudy revealed similarities in gene order between maize and rice butsuggests that they were based on low-resolution genetic maps. Thestudy thus used a rich marker integrated physical map between riceand maize genomes. Through synteny mapping and analysis program(SyMAP) software [37] the study generated a dot plot to computesyntenic blocks with marker density and position. This revealed thatthere is a direct correspondence between each maize syntenic blockand a syntenic rice region which means that segmented duplicationscontinue to arise over time to increase the uniqueness of the genome.The study further shows that divergence of maize has caused genomerearrangements. This study reveals that chromosome speciation inplant evolution can be sued to determine the ancestral form of thecereal genome of plants like the case of maize and rice.

References

Tenaillon, M. I., &amp Charcosset, A. (2011). A European perspective on maize history. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 334(3), 221-228. doi:doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2010.12.015

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069110003045

Mccann,J. (n.d.). Maize and Grace: History, Corn, and Africa’s NewLandscapes, 1500–1999. Boston University. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/S0010417501003486

Wei,F., Coe, E., Nelson, W., Bharti, A. K., Engler, F., Butler, E. . . .Wing, R. (2005). Physical and Genetic Structure of the Maize GenomeReflects its Complex Evolutionary History. PLoS Genetics Preprint(2007). doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030123.eor.http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.0030123