Major Cell Types Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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MajorCell Types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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MajorCell Types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Thereare two primary types of cells namely prokaryotic and eukaryoticcells. This essay examines the similarities and differences betweenthe two types of cells above.

Similarities

Severalsimilarities exist between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. First,both possess a lipid bilayer made up of proteins and phospholipidsfunctioning as a selective obstruction between the cell’s internaland external surroundings the barrier aids in the selective movementof compounds inside and outside the cell. Second, prokaryotic andeukaryotic cells contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the geneticmaterial that regulates cellular activities. Third, the two cellcategories have cytoplasm made up of cytosol, a solution withorganelles, ions, and molecules, and in which metabolic reactionstake place (Alberts,Bray, Hopkin, Johnson, Lewis, Raff &amp Walter, 2013).

Differences

Inspite of the similarities above, there are some distinctionsregarding eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. First, eukaryotic cellsare large, with diameters varying between 10 to 100 micrometers.Conversely, prokaryotic cells are smaller, and have diameters between1 to 10 micrometers. Second, although there are exceptions ofunicellular eukaryotes (e.g. amoeba), eukaryotes are generallymulticellular, whereas prokaryotes are unicellular. Third, unlikeprokaryotic cells which lack membrane-bound nucleus, eukaryotic cellspossess nucleus which are enclosed by a double membrane, and withinwhich the DNA material is located (Albertset al., 2013).Forth, prokaryotic DNA is circular and lacks any relation withhistones, as well as not sorted into chromosomes. On the other hand,eukaryotes have linear DNA made up of complex protein packages namedhistones, and are further organized into chromosomes. Fifth,eukaryotic cells have large, complex ribosomes with 80 differentproteins and 5 kinds of ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) incomparison the prokaryotic cells which have smaller, less complicatedribosomes with 50 distinct proteins and 3 types of rRNA. Also, unlikeprokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have many organelles that aremembrane-bound located in the cytoplasm. Additionally, asexual modeof reproduction (e.g. binary fusion) is common in prokaryotes, whileeukaryotes exhibit sexual reproduction (fusion of gametes from maleand female). Finally, the process of cell division is more complex ineukaryotic cells (mitosis and cytokinesis) as compared to the simplebinary fission in the prokaryotic cells (Albertset al., 2013).See Appendix 1 for the two cell types.

Conclusion

Asdiscussed above, eukaryotic cells compare regarding the presence oflipid bilayer, DNA, and cytosol. However, they differ concerning cellsize, membrane-bound nucleus and organelles, ribosomal size andcomplexity, multicellular or unicellular, DNA structure, and mode ofreproduction and cell division.

Reference

Alberts,B., Bray, D., Hopkin, K., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., … &ampWalter, P. (2013).&nbspEssentialcell biology.NY, U.S.: Garland Science.

Appendix1

Figure1: Prokaryotic cell structure, retrieved fromhttp://biology.tutorvista.com/cell.html

Figure2: Eukaryotic cell structure, retrieved fromhttp://biology.tutorvista.com/cell.html