Medical Treatment for Drug Addiction

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Drug dependence is one of the leading problems in the world.Governments and other stakeholders struggle in their day-to-dayactivities to address the vice. Various scholars have tried tounderstand the origin of drug addiction and the appropriate ways ofdealing with the problem. However, most pieces of literature focus onadult population rather than the adolescents. It should be noted thatteens go through a crucial stage of their life as they transition toadulthood. They are prone to peer-pressure, delinquency acts,mortality, academics, and morbidity. The proper understanding of theadolescents depends on the structural orientations of our societies.The present and conventional models of treatments were designed toaddress the adults facing drug addiction. With the recent rise ofsubstance abuse among the adolescents, scholars have focused theirefforts in understanding the diagnosis and establishing necessarytreatment strategies to combat the problem. In this essay, there willbe a critical analysis of three articles that have carefully examinedthe challenges that adolescents who abuse drugs undergo to havemedical treatment. The first article, “Model of drug addiction:Theories and future applications in prevention and treatment,”Rohan Palmer and John McGeary examine various theories as means toaddress drug addiction (5). The authors argue that despite theadvances in the research on drug addiction among the adolescents, itstill continues to pose a challenge to the society through medicaland treatment costs. The risk of drug abuse is elevated because ofthe numerous transitions they undergo in their lives starting fromhome to school environment. In the second article “Barriers andfacilitators to adolescent drug treatment: Youth, family, and staffreport” by Jennifer Wisdom, Mary Cavaleri, Leah Gogel andMichele Nacht give insightful information on the factors that lead tosubstance abuse among the adolescents (179). Wisdom et al. state thatthe abuse is associated with various problems such low occupationaland educational attainment, reduced satisfaction both in personal andpublic relationships, premature death and violence (179). The lastarticle “Assessing Covariates of Drug Use Trajectories AmongAdolescents Admitted to a Drug Addiction Center: Mental HealthProblems, Therapeutic Alliance, and Treatment Persistence” byKarine Bertrand, Natacha Brunelle, Isabelle Richer, IsabelleBeaudoin, Annie Lemieux and Jean-Marc Menard, provide relevantinformation on the effects of drug abuse on the adolescent population(117). The article defines mental health issues, therapeuticassociation and treatment perseverance as important factors infinding effective treatment approach among the users. The covariateshave both positive and negative influences on the treatment outcomes.From the rhetoric analysis of the three articles, it is clear thatappropriate medical treatment depends on proper understanding of theorigin of drug abuse among the adolescent population. The authorshave used the rhetoric strategies such as pathos, ethos, and logos topass their arguments to the readers, especially those who have beenafflicted with the vice.

The three articles have adopted diverse perspectives on the medicaltreatment of drug addiction among the adolescents. The authors of thethree articles acknowledge that there has been a rise in drug abusecases among the youth. Moreover, they have tried to use varioustheories or approaches to explain the challenges faced by theadolescents in the treatment process. In the first article, Palmer etal. propose various theories that act as determinants of drug abuseand co-morbid problem traits (5). Some of them include sociallearning, family interaction, cognitive-affective, problem behavior,and triadic influence theories. The methods have been examinedfurther by the employment of biometrical study technique. The authorsargue that genetics play a significant role in determining thesubstance abuse (Palmer et al. 7). Since the article analyzes theimpacts of genetics, DNA, on a relative indication of risk, apharmacological approach is the best alternative to drug addictionarising from genetics. In the second article, Wisdom et al. arguethat from the problems, it is necessary for youth to have substanceabuse treatments. The authors focus on the need to acknowledge theorigin of the barriers to treatment in achieving an effectiveprevention strategy. Moreover, the identification of the obstaclesdepends on the reports from youth, families, and staff. The articlelooks at previous research in observing the barriers among the threegroups. The groups comprise of adolescents in the treatment process,their parents, and treatment agency staff. Moreover, the authors haveused three distinct time points in assessing the treatment process.They include the detection of the need, challenges that are relatedto finding services and barriers to commencing treatment. Most of theresearch relies on the previous studies that propose that familiesand youth face several barriers when seeking help on drug abuse. Thearticle concludes that there are perceptual and structural barrierssuch as attitudes and beliefs to substance abuse treatment. Thesocial class also determines the access to treatment among theadolescents. The last article Bertrand et al. seek to examine thedrug consumption trajectories of the teenagers that were admittedinto a substance abuse therapy center and to probe the role of thethree covariates on the difference in the trajectories (117).Additionally, there is a strong relationship between the threecovariates. For example, there is marked improvements whentherapeutic alliance and mental health problems are associated. Theauthors of the three articles have ensured that the readers oraudience knows the challenges that young generation goes through toget appropriate medical treatment that addresses their drug problems.

Ethos can be defined as the need to appeal based on the expertise andcredential of the writers or authors of the articles. The use ofethos improves the trustworthiness and credibility of the articleamong the users. It implies that there has been extensive research onthe medical management to drug addiction. From the first article,“Model of drug addiction: Theories and future applications inprevention and treatment,” the authors Rohan Palmer and JohnMcGeary delve deeper on the origin of drug addiction based on thegenetic makeup. It is easy to trust the content of the articlebecause both authors hold a doctoral philosophy (Ph.D.) and work inthe Behavioral Genetics department at the Rhode Island Hospital(Palmer et al. 7). Besides, the fact that they operate at the sameplace means that they had a lot of time and limited barriers inresearching and reinforcing their ideas on medical treatment to drugaddiction. The second article by Wisdom et al. has also employedethos as a means of pushing their goals on the facilitators andbarriers to adolescent drug treatment based on three perspectivesnamely youth, family, and staff report. Wisdom has an extensiveexperience having worked at New York State Psychiatric Institute andColumbia University under the department of psychiatry (Wisdom et al.179). Cavaleri and Nacht also work at the New York State PsychiatricInstitute. Gogel is the only author among the others who worked at adifferent department though in Columbia University (Wisdom et al.179). The diverse nature of the authors helps in bringing thedifferent point of views regarding the challenges to assessingmedical treatment among the teen substance users. It should be notedthat they acknowledged that there was no conflict of interest andthey acted in a responsible manner when writing the article (Wisdomet al. 186). In the last article, the authors are well learned asexhibited by their academic credentials. The primary author of thearticle, Bertrand, has a wide range of expertise on best practices independence intervention, especially with adolescents and adults.Brunelle holds a Ph.D. on criminology and holds the Canadian ResearchChair on the drug consumption and related issues (Bertrand et al.125). Brunelle’s interest lies in the pattern of drug use amongyouths, rehabilitation trajectories, and delinquency. Richer is alsowell versed with drug use and dependence with Bachelor and MasterDegree in psychology. Beaudoin coordinated Bertrand’s researchprojects while Lemieux is a statistician who has specialized in thelongitudinal statistical analysis (Bertrand et al. 125). Menard isthe last author of the article. He is a clinical coordinator for atreatment center in Quebec. The writers contributed equally towardsthe success of the article. For example, the Lemieux is experiencedin the longitudinal analysis which has been widely used in the paper(Bertrand et al. 119).

The three articles have also employed logos in building their purposestatement. Logos can be defined as an appeal to reason or logic. Thereaders or audience can understand the significance of the articlebased on the logos feature. In the first article Palmer et al.carefully explains the reason that led to their engagement in theresearch. They believe that the existing theories do not elaborateclearly on the drug addiction among the adolescents (Palmer et al.6). Palmer et al. argue that understanding the personal risk toaddiction requires proper examination of the relationship betweengenetic risks and environmental factors such as religion andchildhood maltreatment (Palmer et al. 7). In the second article,Wisdom et al. start their argument by appealing to the logic of theaudience. The adolescents go through a lot of challenges in theirday-to-day activities such as delinquency acts, occupational andacademic performance, morbidity, among others (Wisdom et al. 179).The authors further state that there is a link to drug abuse duringadolescence and adulthood. Some barriers influence the accessibilityof drug abuse services such as ethnic minorities, social class, andjuvenile justice system. Wisdom et al. also used other literature toappeal to the reason of the audience. For example, the article hasused Titus, Godley and White argument that most teens start usingdrugs because of peer influence. The common reason for quitting isthe adverse effects associated with the drugs. The grounds forstarting and stopping drugs have both positive and adverse effect onthe medical treatment process (Wisdom et al. 180). The last articlehas also employed logos in their development of purpose statement.Similar to Wisdom et al., Bertrand et al. commence their argument bystating the challenges undergone by the youth due to addiction.Moreover, the two articles approve the importance of engaging in thetreatment process. However, they argue that the therapeutic changesare unclear (Bertrand et al. 118). On the contrary, Bertrand et al.have also used the statement of other scholars in establishing theirframework on treatment based on the three covariates. From the threearticles, logos have been efficiently and effectively used to appealto both logic and reason among the readers.

Pathos has also been used in the three articles as mean to appeal tothe emotions of the audience or readers. Drug abuse, especially amongthe adolescents is a serious phenomenon that affects the parents andgovernment at large. In the first article, Palmer et al. state thatteens are at a developmental stage and exposure to drugs is harmfulbecause their brains are not fully developed (Palmer et al. 5). Inthe second article, Wisdom et al. have also used pathos to appeal tothe emotions of the audience. The authors have portrayed thechallenges undergone by the adolescent that lead to their drugaddiction (Wisdom et al. 179). Bertrand et al. have also used pathosto show the extent of the situation in Canada. They state that 5.9percent of high school students exhibit signs of substanceconsumption (Bertrand et al. 117). In the three articles, pathos hasbeen used to explain the impacts of addiction and the uncertainty ofthe medical treatment.

In conclusion, the three articles portray the factors that influencemedical treatment to drug addiction through the adoption of thevarious rhetoric strategies. Although the articles delve intodifferent aspects and opinion, they all revolve around medicaltreatment process. The use of ethos has ensured that the articles arerelevant to the reader. Moreover, the use of other scholars’ ideasserves a significant purpose in that the audience believes theircredibility. Furthermore, logos ensured that the authors haveevidence of their arguments through previous academic articles andproper analysis. Additionally, the use of pathos influenced theemotions of the readers such that they yearn to understand more aboutthe effectiveness of the treatment process.

Works Cited

Bertrand, Brunelle, Richer, Beaudoin, Lemieux and Menard. &quotAssessingcovariates of drug use trajectories among adolescents admitted to adrug addiction center: Mental health problems, therapeutic alliance,and treatment persistence.&quot&nbspSubstance use &ampmisuse&nbsp48.1-2 (2013): 117-128.

Palmer, Rohan, and John McGeary. &quotModels of drug addiction:Theories and future applications in prevention and treatment.&quot&nbspTheBrown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter&nbsp32.5(2016): 1-7.

Wisdom, Cavaleri, Gogel and Michele Nacht. &quotBarriers andfacilitators to adolescent drug treatment: Youth, family, and staffreports.&quot&nbspAddiction Research &amp Theory&nbsp19.2(2010): 179-188.