Middle-Range Theories

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Themiddle-range theories allow one to integrate theory and empiricalevidence in resolving some of the sociological concepts (Elo,Kääriäinen, Isola, &amp Kyngäs, 2013). The concept enables thecreation of verifiable propositions as opposed to broad abstracts.The ‘essentials’ provide an opportunity for an individual toconsider creative and transformative thinking in the course ofeducation. There is a great need for the expansion of knowledge asprovided for by the increasing diversity and technologicaladvancements. It is noteworthy that the current global healthencounters myriad of opportunities and challenges. Understanding themiddle-range theories assists in the creation of the approaches andinterventions to resolve the health problems. By integrating theoryand empirical evidence, the world will be in a position to fix someof the serious health concerns (Smith &amp Liehr, 2013).


Thetheory of chronic sorrow offers a mechanism through which people gainan understanding of how to relate to individuals suffering from lossor a period of sadness (Mercer, 2015). Such an understanding isessential in the clinical practice as it allows the caregivers togenerate the right interventions for improved outcomes. Often, humansexperience challenges and situations that bring along sorrow. Suchscenarios affect the social and health well-being thereby, demandingappropriate management. The concept of self-transcendence gainedinfluence from the personality development theories (DiNapoli et al.,2014). It considers that humans develop through interactions withother people and the physical environment. The physical environmentor the people could have either positive or negative influence onone’s well-being. The role of nursing is to help individuals in theinterpersonal and therapeutic management of the environment toenhance the promotion of health and welfare. The realization ofclinical outcomes requires proper administration of the social andphysical elements that influence health status (Alligood, 2014).


Alligood,M. R. (2014). Nursingtheorists and their work.Missouri: Elsevier Health Sciences.

DiNapoli,J. M., Garcia-Dia, M. J., Garcia-Ona, L., O’Flaherty, D., &ampSiller, J. (2014). Self-Transcendence Theory. TheoriesGuiding Nursing Research and Practice: Making Nursing KnowledgeDevelopment Explicit,251.

Elo,S., Kääriäinen, M., Isola, A., &amp Kyngäs, H. (2013).Developing and testing a middle-range theory of the well-beingsupportive physical environment of home-dwelling elderly. TheScientific World Journal,2013.

Mercer,C. (2015). The impact of non-motor manifestations of Parkinson`sdisease on partners: understanding and application of chronic sorrowtheory. Journalof primary health care,7(3),221-227.

Smith,M. J., &amp Liehr, P. R. (Eds.). (2013). Middlerange theory for nursing.New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Middle Range Theories

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MiddleRange Theories

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Self-transcendencetheory is defined as the inborn, continuous, non-direct formativeprocess, bringing about expanded attention to measurements morenoteworthy than the self and developments of individual limits insideintrapersonal, interpersonal, transpersonal, and fleeting spaces(Reed, 1991). It is a social concept developed by Pamela Reed basedon earlier studies by Rogers that purported the notion of humanbeings to be unitary in nature. The theory of chronic sorrow, on theother hand, was developed by Eakes, Burke, and Hainsworth (1998) asan attempt to explain the response of a singular or multiple causesof grief .

Essential1 involves the background for practice from Sciences and Humanities arequisite for a Master’s qualification in nursing. This provisionequips nurses with the ability to deliver high-quality patient carein any surrounding irrespective of the diversity of the patients’populations. The familiarization with different disciplines both inscience and humanities empowers the nurses with more knowledge on howto address unique patient situations in their line of duty (AACN,2011). This experience is also important because it generatesintegration between nursing and other fields in a bit to offer thebest medical care available to patients.

Reed’stheory of Self-Transcendence explores three key concepts. These aretranscendence which has been explained earlier, well-being whichdepicts that healthy individuals are those that are wellholistically, and vulnerability which is the understanding of aperson’s mortality and exposure to disturbing events (Reed, 1991).Alternatively, the theory of chronic sorrow highlights two mainideas. These include the antecedent events which are the occurrencesthat take place before the onset of chronic sorrow and thetriggers/milestones which are the conditions that bring intoperspective the changes caused by the loss (Lindgren, 1992). Ahealthcare practitioners understanding of these vital presumptionswill help in addressing the exclusive needs of a patient in relationto their circumstances.

Scholarsin the nursing field have been identified as supporters for theimplementation of these theories as a framework to administer medicalcare. One such individual is Jean Scornaienchi , a paediatric nurseat Bancroft Neurohealth, Cherry Hills, New Jersey(Scornaienchi,2003). She explores the concept of chronic sorrow in a family wherethe mother struggles to take care of her two children that have amedical condition known as lissencephaly.


AmericanAssociation of Colleges of Nursing (2011). The Essentials of MastersEducation in Nursing. Retrieved March 21, 2017.

Eakes,G., Burke, M., &amp Hainsworth, M. (1998). Middle Range Theory ofChronic Sorrow. Journalof Nursing Scholarship,179-184. Retrieved March 21, 2017.

Lindgren,C. (1992). Chronic Sorrow: A Lifespan Concept. ScholarlyInquiry for Nursing Practice,27-40. Retrieved March 21, 2017.

Reeds,P. (1991). Toward a Nursing theory of Self-transcendence: Deductivereformulation using developmental theories. Advancesin Nursing Science,64-77. Retrieved March 21, 2017.

Scornaienchi,J. M. (2003). Chronic sorrow: One mother`s experience with twochildren with lissencephaly. Journalof Pediatric Health Care,290-294. Retrieved March 21, 2017.

Middle-Range Theories

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Thispaper will dwell on two theories that relate to motherhood and thenit will narrow its focus to the factors and characteristics thataffect the maternal role identity and the relationship between theparent and child respectively.

Thetheory of maternal role attainment is the interaction between thebaby and the mother. As time goes by, the mother gets connected tothe child and derives satisfaction and pleasure in motherhood. As shegains more maternal experience, her confidence increases. On theother hand, the model of a parent and child interacts focuses more onthe relationships between the mother and child, unlike the attainmenttheory which emphasizes on the mother’s abilities to take care ofthe baby[CITATION Mil11 l 1033 ].

Parentsreceive support from two main categories, which are support from thehusband and her friends and family. The type of support offeredinclude appraisal, instrumental and emotional support. This system ofsupport plays a significant role in the maternal behavior of amother. Women respond well to support from their husbands due to theadaptive maternal characteristic. For a mother who has given birthfor the first time, studies have found that given enough support, shedevelops confidence in maternal matters[CITATION Fer11 l 1033 ].

Agehas a crucial factor in determining the parental success. Women whogive birth when they are young, have difficulties in taking care oftheir newborn baby because of the conflict between the developmentneeds of the mother and child, insufficient experience in childdevelopment and growth and their immaturity. Young mothers have ahard time during motherhood because they find it difficult to handlethe responsibilities, stress, and problems that arise. While olderparents’ priorities are nurturing and comforting the baby, ateenage mother`s idea of an ideal parent is ensuring the baby isclean. Because a young mother is still growing, she is in conflictwith herself, trying to harmonize her development and that of herinfant child[CITATION Big12 l 1033 ].

Womenwho have fully developed have a better chance of handling a baby.Characteristics of a mother, which include flexibility and empathyare crucial for understanding an infant. A mother who lacks empathy,cannot take care of a baby that displays negative behavior. Forinstance, a crying baby is hard to handle if the mother lacksempathy- which enables her to put herself in the child’s position.Such mothers feel sad and incompetent in taking care of theirinfant[CITATION Cha11 l 1033 ].

Motherswhose identity is clear to them that is they possess personalintegration, have been found to have greater competence andconfidence levels in their maternal behaviors. With increasing age,mothers become more connected to parental responsibilities, and thebaby is nurtured and protected [ CITATION Mas15 l 1033 ].

Aneducated mother is well informed because she has prepared herselfintellectually. She has read a lot of information to help her preparefor motherhood. During the pregnancy, she is aware of herresponsibilities concerning the baby’s health. Most educatedmothers are career women and do not cater enough time for theirinfants. The baby has little time to spend with the mother. Thematernal bond is, therefore, weak. These mothers stop breastfeedingearly and resort to external milk for their baby’s growth, which isnot recommended[CITATION Big12 l 1033 ].

Microsystemrefers to the environment that is closest to the child. It includesthe interactions the baby is privy to, which consist of theneighborhood, family, and school. The interactions at this stage areof significant consequence to the child’s upbringing. Mesosystemrefers to the interactions between the constructs of the baby’smicrosystem. Macro system is the furthest environment from the child,which is comprised of customs, laws, and values.

Inconclusion, women face a lot of challenges during motherhood, butthey develop skills and traits that help them manage future children.


Bigfoot, D. S., &amp Funderburk, B. W. (2012). Honoring children, making relatives:. Journal of, 309-318.

Chaffi, M., Funderburk, B., Bard, D., &amp Valle. (2012). A combined motivation and parent child interaction therapy reduces child welfare recidivism in a randomized dismantling trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Phychology, 84-95.

Fernandez, M. A., Butler, A. M., &amp Eyberg. (2014).Treatment outcome for low socio economic status African American families in the Parent-Child interwction Therapy. Child and Family Behavior, 32-48.

Masters, K. (2015) Nursing theories: A Framework for Professional Practice. 2nd edition. Burlington, Massachusetts. Jones &amp Bartlett Learning. Chapter 23 &amp 24.

Miles, M., Holditch-Davis, D., &amp Burchinal, M. R. (2012). Maternal role attainment with. Research in Nursing &amp Health, 20-34.