Motivational Theories

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Herzberg`sTwo-Factor Theory

FredrickHerzberg (1959) conceptualized the motivator-hygiene theory or thetwo-factor theory given his much interest in the correlation betweenworkplace motivation and employee attitude (Schwalbe,2015).The theory presumes that there are two sets of job factors thatimpact workplace motivation either positively or negatively. The jobfactors include the hygiene factors and the motivational factors(Miner,2015).The hygiene factors are mainly physiological needs which areindependent or extrinsic to the work itself causing dissatisfaction.Furthermore, the factors do not enhance positive satisfaction, buttheir absence leads to dissatisfaction. Such factors include jobsecurity, working conditions, organizational politics, and status.Other hygiene factors include quality of leadership, compensation,and interpersonal relationships (Miner,2015).

Secondly,the motivational factors are satisfiers as they generate positivesatisfaction they are considered as inherent to the work itself andintrinsically rewarding (Schwalbe,2015).They are mostly psychological needs that are perceived as extrabenefits. Some of the factors include a sense of achievement,recognition, responsibility, the meaningfulness of the work, and thegrowth and promotional opportunities.

McClelland’sTheory of Needs

DavidMcClelland conceptualized the theory of Needs also known asAchievement Motivation Theory. The theory assumes that human behavioris impacted by three needs namely affiliation, achievement, and power(Schwalbe,2015).The need for achievement is the desire to excel or succeed hence,motivation and high performance is achieved through challenging andcompeting for work as well as promotional opportunities. Achievementof goals and objective is considered more significant as opposed tofinancial rewards. The need for power refers to the how people yearnto impact or control other people’s behavior based on their wishes(Miner,2015).There is a great urge for self-esteem and reputation hence thosepeople with higher power perform excellently given theirorganizational commitment and loyalty. Lastly, the need foraffiliation refers to the desire for sociable and open interpersonalrelationships in a supportive and friendly environment. The needseeks to enhance relationships based on mutual understanding andoperation to enhance team performance.

Thamhainand Wilemon`s Influence and Power Theory

Thamhainand Wilemon (1997) proposed the theory stating that power is theprobable ability to impact behavior to force people to do things theywould otherwise not do (Schwalbe,2015).The different types of power include legitimate, coercive, referent,reward, and expert. Leaders must influence people by using work andexpertise challenge as opposed to depending authority, money, andpenalty. Power and influence are essential to motivate people. Leaders must strike a balance between the diverse ways used toinfluence people and the diverse types of power to ensure achievementof set goals and objectives (Miner,2015).There are nine influencing factors used to motivate team membersnamely authority, assignment, budget, promotion, money, penalty, workchallenge, expertise, and friendship. Application of the factorsleads to the realization of goals and objectives on the budget, ontime, and on target (Schwalbe,2015).


Schwalbe,K. (2015).&nbspInformationtechnology project management.Cengage Learning.

Miner,J. B. (2015).&nbspOrganizationalbehavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge.