The European recording companies used various strategies to competefor West African market and audiences in the 1920s. To start with,they gave royalties to big stars from records and music sales. Mostartists received a fee for recording sessions whereby they would bepaid per song. John Philip Sousa, for instance, received fifteenpercent of sheet music sales (Marshall 56). Additionally, they alsoused electrical speakers and microphones, which were much better thanhand-cranked phonographs. They also utilized radio stations topromote their new products. For instance, Victor Records and CapitolRecords build their relations with radio stations whereby they wouldsupply personalized unique copies free (Marshall 56). Unlike the TV,radio shows do not need the undivided attention of the audience. Itoffers non-interactive and passive entertainment, and people wouldlisten to it at work, in the car, and at home.
According to Linda Scott (223), in advertising, there is more tomusic than simply vibrant melody and theme songs. It can be used toalter audience’s mood unknowingly. She argues it would be boring towatch a movie without background sound because one cannot get a fullexperience. Likewise, commercial music makes the same effect bycapturing the attention of the viewers. The different tempos,pitches, time changes, and music content create different moods andcan make viewers think or feel certain ways. Scotts (225) refersmusic as “prefabricated, multipurpose, and highly conventional.”It mediates attention and memory. Further, it increases theinvolvement of the audience with a persuasive text. It causes theviewer to have an attachment to the advertised product or servicewithout a cognitive connection. In other words, music creates a bondbetween a product and the viewer hence, it is essential foradvertisers to evaluate the targeted audience so that they can choosethe right music.
The main way Ben Decter gets TV, film, and commercial jobs is throughrequests. He says that he does not go looking for theseopportunities, but rather he is asked to make the appearance atvarious spots (Decter n.p). When an opportunity arises, he just grabsit. He argues that as an independent and freelance composer, hisdiversity and flexibility has been amazingly worthwhile. He hascreated several commercials including McDonald’s, Visa, Lifesavers,Bell South, and Honda. He states that he would compose for ABC’sOFF THE MAP weekly, which was incredibly rewarding especially becausehe had a chance to record with an orchestra (Decter n.p).
Andrew Goodwin claims that visuals are “music” in music videos(Gardner 41). He explains this through five aspects including thevisual representation of the sound, protagonist, technical,relationship between visuals and a song, and narrative andperformance. Gardner (41) gives features of the music video. First,he claims there is a connection between visuals and lyrics on thescreen (Gardner 42). Visuals in the music video are communicationbetween an artist and the audience. They promote a song throughcontradicting, amplifying, and illustrating. There are images andshots in the video that give the meaning of the song lyrics and thegenre. In addition, when the camera and image shots appearrepetitively, the sense of the song sticks more on the audience mind.Gardner (42) asserts that music videos demonstrate genrecharacteristics such as concept-based, narrative-based, studioperformance, and stadium performance. Lastly, he states close ups ofthe artist as the key feature of music videos. This is evident when acharacter does as the song says. For instance, the artist is jumping,and the lyric is jump! Jump! This gives a deeper meaning of the songand reinforces the lyrical content.
Decter , Ben . "Bio." Ben Decter – Composer. N.p.,n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2017. <http://bendecter.com/bio/>.
Gardner, Abigail. PJ Harvey and music video performance.Routledge, 2016.
Marshall, Lee. The international recording industries. Vol.75. Routledge, 2013.
Scott, Linda M. "Understanding jingles and needledrop: Arhetorical approach to music in advertising." Journal ofConsumer Research 17.2 (1990): 223-236.