Neurocognitive Disorder Alzheimer`s

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NeurocognitiveDisorder: Alzheimer’s

NeurocognitiveDisorder: Alzheimer’s

Question1: Alzheimer’s Disorder

Alzheimer’sdisease (AD) is among the leading causes of dementia with aprevalence level among adults over the age of 65 years. The illnessis a neurodegenerative condition that reduces the cognitive abilitiesin a person rendering them unable to carry out normal humanactivities. The disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, a doctor whodescribed it as a physical ailment that affects the brain (Stahl,2013). Being a progressive sickness, Alzheimer affects the braingradually, which means that patients usually register differentsymptoms until it reaches severe levels.

Thediagnosis of the disease relies upon the symptoms presented in agiven case since they are similar to other neurocognitive disordersand their progress is gradual, which means that early diagnosis formost cases is difficult. According to studies, majority of thepopulation that suffers from the disorder, develop it after the ageof 65 with very few cases developing it before that age, which is whyit has been associated with old age (Sadock, &amp Sadock, 2011).Though most people associate dementia related diseases with old age,there are other factors that serve as risk factors for the disease.They include lifestyle and health status where a majority of thosewith lifestyle diseases are exposed to early onset of Alzheimer’s,genetic inheritance of disease though very rare and gender where itappears that women are more prone to getting it than men (Stahl,2013).

Question2: Current Practice Based Intervention

Oneof the most used practice-based intervention for Alzheimer’sdisease like all other dementia related disorders is behavioraltherapy which aims to reduce depressive occurrences while increasingthose that are pleasant (Han &amp Han, 2014). The essence of thistherapy is to improve the quality of life for patients who are moreprone to depressing events around them which increases mood swingssince they are no longer capable of seeking pleasant events forthemselves. According to Han and Han (2014) caregivers haveestablished that a positive activity provides the patients with asense of self-worth, eases depression, and improves how they relatewith family.

Foreffective behavioral therapy, caregivers are often advised toidentify suitable environments and activities that correlate with thepatient’s level of ability, which will in turn improve theirinvolvement in daily life activities. Research findings as discussedby Han and Han (2014) indicate that this activity when done aftertraining caregivers on the right approach showed low agitation levelsin patients meaning the quality of their life improved. When carriedout by trained caregivers and clinicians, the intervention helps bothsevere and mild cases of the disorder.

Question3: Comprehensive Initial Treatment Plan

PrimaryIntervention

Withlifestyle diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases,metabolic syndrome been rated as risk factors for dementia relateddisorders. The suggested primary intervention would involveincreasing healthy diet and physical activities to reduce theadvancement of dementia, especially for late advancement for thosealready at risk (Sadock, &amp Sadock, 2011). In this case, primaryintervention measures target to reduce or eliminate risk factors,thus, delay development.

SecondaryIntervention

Theintroduction of secondary intervention measures is done to diagnosethe disease during its early stages where there are no symptomsnoticed yet, with the sole aim of treating to stop or limitadvancement. Studies have established that symptomatic treatmentcannot limit advancement of dementia but prevention measures takenduring the preclinical stage help detect risk factors and introduceprimary intervention measures before dementia begins (Sadock &ampSadock, 2011). Secondary intervention consequently offers apreventive approach in prevention of AD.

TertiaryIntervention

Oncethe disease has taken root in a patient, tertiary interventionmeasures offer the best approaches to managing the symptoms andeffects of the disease on the well-being of the patient. It is atthis stage that caregivers are introduced to ensure that the qualityof life for each patient is improved by undertaking activities thatensure the negative impacts of symptoms are reduced. Combined withboth primary and secondary interventions, tertiary care involvesreducing stress, and behavioral therapy to improve mood (AmericanPsychiatrist Association, 2014)

Safetyand Legal Concerns

Familiesand those related with AD patients, particularly in the severe stagesare faced with many decisions involving care, treatment, researchinvolvement, and end of life care options, all which raise safety andlegal concerns. To overcome these dilemmas, caregivers are advised toensure that all treatments given to patients are safe ad verified toprotect their lives (Sadock &amp Sadock, 2011). It is alsorecommended that in cases where it is clear that the patient isnearing the end of their life, transfers be made to facilities thatoffer the best care for the patients.

GenomicConsiderations

Alzheimer’sDisorder has been related to a gene which means that there is a riskfactor of it been hereditary. This risk factor is placed onpredisposition of non-mendelian AD which has a 60-80% heredity factor(American Psychiatrist Association, 2014). With regard to this, it isbelieved that there is risk in genetic predisposition hence requiringthose with a family history to get evaluated for biomarkers of thedisease.

Psychotherapy

Thoughthere are trained caregivers in charge of psychological therapy forpatients, those close to them need to be educated on it so they canensure that the quality of life recommended in care is provided atall times.

Pharmacotherapy

Drugtreatments that have been offered with noted success for AD patientshave mainly been antidepressants which have reduced the level ofdepression for most patients thereby improving their moods. However,medical treatments have to be accompanied by therapy for effectiveresults.

Complementaryand Alternative Treatments/ Community Intervention

Communityinterventions involve educating them about AD since majority of thelower-class populations relate dementia with old age and are likelyto ignore its effects on the life of patients. These interventionscould involve group therapies for early AD patients which reduces thenegative impacts of the disease on their lives (Sadock &amp Sadock,2011).

HealthPromotion and Disease prevention

Likeother mental illnesses, there is need to increase knowledge about thedisease among populations which will in turn lead to early diagnosis,early care and even prevention through primary and secondaryintervention.

PatienceResponse and Modification of Treatment Plan

Sincetreatment involves various intervention approaches, there is need forconstant evaluation to see the effects on patient where if noimprovements have been noted, the intervention needs to be modified.The measure for success needs to be based on finding symptoms forthose who are in early care and effects in quality of life for thosewho are already in tertiary care (Sadock &amp Sadock, 2011). Thewhole treatment process should be reviewed in such cases to see whatcan be improved and what should be eliminated.

References

AmericanPsychiatrist Association. (2014). Diagnosticand statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5), 5thEd. Retrieved fromhttps://psicovalero.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/dsm-v-manual-diagnc3b3stico-y-estadc3adstico-de-los-trastornos-mentales.pdf

Han,J.Y., &amp Han S.H. (2014). Primary prevention of Alzheimer’sdisease: Is it an attainable goal? Journalof Korean Medical Science,Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4101775/

Sadock,B. J., &amp Sadock, V. A. (2011).Kaplan and Sadock`s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioralsciences/clinical psychiatry.New York, NY: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins. Retrieved fromhttps://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=fFi7DR2hmaIC&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PA7&ampdq=Synopsis+of+psychiatry:+Behavioral+sciences+clinical+psychiatry&ampots=bVpzSnG9-d&ampsig=8aGZRYutaD19RG15S4ii-NDIk8I&ampredir_esc=y#v=onepage&ampq=Synopsis%20of%20psychiatry%3A%20Behavioral%20sciences%20clinical%20psychiatry&ampf=false

Stahl,S. M. (2013). Stahl`sessential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practicalapplications.Ithaca, NY: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved fromhttps://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&amplr=&ampid=BBtMzTV8OMgC&ampoi=fnd&amppg=PR1&ampdq=Stahl%27s+Essential+Psychopharmacology&ampots=Hfwis9RtM0&ampsig=PPSLHQTWtm6xKWQaZ2uSMyCRxNw&ampredir_esc=y#v=onepage&ampq=Stahl`s%20Essential%20Psychopharmacology&ampf=false