NutritionalDeficiency or Toxicity Found In Animals
NutritionalDeficiency or Toxicity Found In Animals
Animalsrequire an adequate supply of food in their diet for the differentbody metabolical functions. Take, for instance, sufficient supply ofenergy and protein is necessary for the general animal body health.With an adequate supply of these nutrients, the productivity ofanimals will be increased (Gružauskas, 2016). Nutritional deficiencymay be called malnutrition. Nutritional deficiency may at times leadsto death.
Energyand proteins are necessary for the overall development of an animal.This is provided by good quality pasture. In desperate situationssuch as drought, good quality pasture may not be available to theanimals often leading to energy deficiencies in animals that resultin reduced performances (Makkar, 2016). The following are signs ofenergy and protein deficiency in animals stunted growth in infantanimals and late onset of puberty, a short period of lactation inmilking animals and reduced milk production, massive loss of bodyweight especially during late pregnancy and the onset of lactation,prolonged period of anoestrus which reduced performance in cattlebreeding and lastly, the young ones are born when weak (Gružauskas,2016). The signs of protein deficiency in animals include the younganimals lose appetite, lowered feed intake, reduced muscledevelopment, prolonged maturity, in mature animals, there is reducedmilk production. The best way to control energy and proteindeficiency is by de-worming the animals. The treatment and preventionof deficiency in nutrition are beyond the reach of a majority offarmers across the globe. This is why a majority of the animals donot survive during drought. This often leads to the slaughtering ofanimals or selling them to interested buyers.
Inruminant animals, the following vitamins have great importancevitamin A, D and K. Vitamin A is found in green plants. If animalsfeed well on green pasture, they are not affected by lack of vitaminA. The signs of lack of vitamin A in animals include reduced growthdue to decline in appetite, impaired vision, stillbirth casesincreases in gravid animals, collapsing of calves often known asfainting fits
Animalsget their vitamin D from the sun. This vitamin helps in theabsorption of Calcium and Phosphorus and deposition into the bones.Sufficient vitamin D in the body leads to the development of strongbones thus proper development and growth of both the adult and theyoung animals. The following are signs of lack of Vitamin D in thebody there is reduced growth rate often leading to stunted growth,improper development of both bones and teeth of the animal. Vitamin Dcan be treated in a number of ways. These include injection ofvitamin D and giving an oral supplement to the animal so as tocorrect the ratio.
VitaminK is found in forages. It is considered that there is no primarythough it can be physically induced through dicoumarol poisoning.Dicoumarol is an anticoagulant that leads to depletion of Vitamin Kin the body (Gružauskas, 2016). This could be applied to ratpoisoning. The following are the clinical signs of lack of Vitamin Din the body excessive bleeding that leads to failure of blood toclot, there is excessive abdominal pain and lameness (Nelson, 2016).Additionally, there are appearances of hemorrhagic parts within themembrane of the following parts mouth, nose, and eyes.
Mineralsare very important for the increase production of the animals. Morethan six percent of the weight of an ordinary animal consists ofmineral (Makkar, 2016). These minerals are found in the feeds thatthey take. When there are insufficient minerals in the plants theyfeed on, the animals too will be lacking it within their system. Itis often advisable to give your livestock additional supplements.When the soil that plants grow from lack certain nutrients due tosoil degeneration, then the livestock will be affected. The mineralsthat an animal feeds on should be in the right ratio since theexcess of a particular mineral may lead to the reduction of aparticular mineral. For example, when there is an excessiveabsorption of phosphorus, calcium absorption is reduced. The mineralsthat are needed by the animals include Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Cobalt, Copper, andMolybdenum (Gružauskas, 2016). The following are the major signs ofmineral deficiency excessive diarrhea, tetany, decrease infertility, bone disorders, increase the loss of appetite, reducedmilk production, general weakness and skin disorders. The incidenceof mineral deficiency and toxicity are very common in the tropicalregions.
Inconclusion, the availability of the required ration of nutrients isvery crucial for the proper development of an animal. For a farmer,when an animal is fully served with proper nutrients, there will beincreased production of milk and performance of the animal (Makkar,2016). This means that, in the event that there are nutrientdeficiencies, all the animals will be affected negatively. Therefore,a farmer should be in a position to know the required nutrients andhow to maintain the ratio. The most important thing a farmer shouldnever forget is deworming the animal at the required interval oftime. When it comes to the diagnosis of a nutritional deficiency,there are a lot of clinical signs that should be checked. This isdone in order to determine the correct nutritional deficiencies thatexist within a particular animal. There are also diseases that areassociated with nutritional deficiency and toxicity in animals. Thesediseases affect the overall performance and productivity of theanimals, especially for farmers. For a farmer when the animals areaffected, they incur a lot of losses including the death of theanimals.
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Makkar,H. S. (2016). Animal nutrition in a 360-degree view and a frameworkfor future R&D work: towards sustainable livestock production.AnimalProduction Science,56(10),1561-1568. doi:10.1071/AN15265
Nelson,C. D., Lippolis, J. D., Reinhardt, T. A., Sacco, R. E., Powell, J.L., Drewnoski, M. E., & … Weiss, W. P. (2016). Vitamin D statusof dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry.JournalOf Dairy Science,99(12),10150-10160. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-11727