Obesityand Sleep Deprivation
Obesityand sleep deprivation are medical conditions with high proportions inthe United States. Over two-thirds of the adult population isestimated to be obese. In our modern society, the prevalence ofobesity and sleep deprivation is high necessitating an in-depthevaluation of these two health conditions. This paper will discussboth obesity and sleep deprivation in details.
Dependingon the context, obesity has various definitions. Being obese is astate of having a weight that’s greater than the considered healthyweight. Being obese in simple terms is having excess body fat. Whenusing the body mass index, one can clearly define obesity as a BMI ofover 30. Obesity is common in the U.S. It’s estimated that overtwo-thirds of the adults in the country are obese[ CITATION Deb12 l 1033 ]
Thebalance between calories consumed and calories burned is whatdetermines an individual’s weight. When you consume more caloriesthan you metabolize, you end up gaining weight. On the other handconsuming fewer calories than you burn leads to losing weight.Discussed below are some of the causes of obesity.
Genetics.There are high chances that a person who has obese parents will endup being obese. Genetics affect the hormones in charge of fatregulation. An example of a genetic condition that leads to obesityis leptin deficiency. Leptin is the hormone that’s in charge of fatregulation. It signals the brain to demand less food when fat storagein the body is more than sufficient. For some reason, the body mightfail to produce leptin. This in-turn, makes the person to moreconsume calories and the body had already more than enough calories.Currently, scientists are carrying out research on leptin replacementas a treatment procedure for obesity [ CITATION Deb12 l 1033 ].
Overeating.Overeating foods that are high in fats lead to weight gain. Foodsthat are high in fat or calories are known high-density foods foodswith high calories in less quantity. Overfeeding on such types offoods can lead to obesity.
Consumptionof foods with high carbohydrates. There is still a lot of debate onthe role of carbohydrates in weight gain. Consumption ofcarbohydrates leads to increased glucose levels in the body. In turn,the increased blood glucose levels stimulate insulin production whichpromotes the development of fat tissues. Science has also proved thatsimple carbohydrates can lead to obesity since they are easilyabsorbed into the bloodstream as compared to complex carbohydrates,and this causes rapid insulin release.
Theeating frequency. The relationship between how often you eat and yourbody weight is controversial. It’s not uncommon to find obesepeople who eat fewer times in a day, and at the same time to findsomeone who is healthy but eats frequently. Scientific research hasshown that people who eat small quantities, four to five meals a day,have low cholesterol levels as compared to those who eat large mealsbut less frequently. The explanation behind this phenomena is therelease of insulin in the body. Large meals stimulate the releases ofhigh levels of insulin as compared to small meals.
Lacof physical exercises. People with sedentary lifestyles burn fewercalories as compared to physically active people. The NationalHealthy Survey in the United States showed that lack of exercise wasresponsible overweight issues in both sexes in the country.
Medicines.Some medication may lead weight gain. Medication such asantidepressants, anticonvulsants, and some diabetes medicines lead toweight gain in certain patients.
Psychologicalfactors. In some people emotions influence eating and body weight. Inresponse to certain emotions like stress or boredom, some people tendto eat more. It’s common among obese people to have issues of bingeeating.
Diseases.There are various diseases that lead to weight gain. Disease such ashypothyroidism and crushing-syndromes have been linked to obesity.
Socialissues. Some socials issues may be contributing factors to the highrate of obesity in the country. Issues such as poverty put people ina position they can’t afford a healthy lifestyle such as eatinghealthy foods and working out.
Obesityis harmful to one’s health. In the United States, obesity isresponsible 112,000 deaths yearly. Life expectancy is also reducedfor individuals with a BMI of over 35. Obesity is also a risk factorto a couple of diseases including insulin resistance, type 2diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, stroke, heart attack,heart failure, cancer, sleep apnea, degenerative arthritis, gout andgallstones.
Sleepis an important part of our lives. We spent almost a third of ourlives asleep. The amount and quality of sleep that one getsdetermines his or her day to day performance.
Causesof Sleep Deprivation
Voluntarybehavior. At times, people voluntarily decide to restrict their sleeptime. In most cases, such people are ignoring the fact that theirbodies demand more sleep time. The consumption of stimulants at nightcan also affect one`s sleep.
Commitments.People may restrict their sleep because of work or school commitment.Some jobs may interrupt the natural cycle of sleep, e.g. frequenttravel by air and this may interrupt one’s pattern of sleeping.School schedules and commitments make it difficult for young peopleto get the recommended hours of sleep [ CITATION Mat13 l 1033 ].
Theenvironment. Your immediate environment affects your sleepingpatterns and hours. Extreme temperatures or loud neighborhoods aresome of the environmental factors that may cause an Individual to besleep deprived.
Sleepapnea. This is a medical condition where the upper airway blocks,hence restricting the flow of air to the lungs. This makes theindividual to regularly wake up during the night. As a result, it’snot uncommon for patients with this condition to be sleep deprived.
Effectsof Sleep Deprivation
Psychologicaleffects. People who are sleep deprived are very moody. The slightestthings irritate them the most, and they fail to keep up with life’schallenges. In some cases, sleep deprived people have reported havingexperienced hallucinations. In extreme cases, confusion and paranoiaare very common.
Productivityeffects. When one is sleep deprived, the person feels exhausted andwouldn’t be willing to do anything. In the case, they end upcarrying out the task their concentration would be minimal. Lack ofenough sleep negatively affects your creativity and thinking. Inadults lack of productivity will be seen at the workplace and inyounger people, it will be seen at school [CITATION Cle16 l 1033 ].
Healtheffects. Long term sleep deprivation could lead to medical conditionssuch as high blood pressure, heart problems which may lead to astroke. Pregnant women may also face complications when they do notget enough sleep. Body weight can rapidly change. Sleep depravedpeople lack the psyche to engage in physical activities, and thisnegatively affects their health.
Theprevalence of obesity and sleep deprivation in the country has beensteadily increasing, however this should not undermine the necessityof containing these health conditions. As discussed in the paper,both conditions have adverse effects that call for their urgentmanagement.
Bianchi, Matt T. Sleep Deprivation and Disease: Effects on the Body, Brain and Behavior. Belin: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
Debasis Bagchi, Harry G. Preuss. Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2012.
Kushida, Clete A. Sleep Deprivation: Basic Science, Physiology and Behavior. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2016.