Obesity and Sleep Deprivation

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Obesityand Sleep Deprivation

Obesityand sleep deprivation are medical conditions with high proportions inthe United States. Over two-thirds of the adult population isestimated to be obese. In our modern society, the prevalence ofobesity and sleep deprivation is high necessitating an in-depthevaluation of these two health conditions. This paper will discussboth obesity and sleep deprivation in details.

OBESITY

Dependingon the context, obesity has various definitions. Being obese is astate of having a weight that’s greater than the considered healthyweight. Being obese in simple terms is having excess body fat. Whenusing the body mass index, one can clearly define obesity as a BMI ofover 30. Obesity is common in the U.S. It’s estimated that overtwo-thirds of the adults in the country are obese[ CITATION Deb12 l 1033 ]

Causesof Obesity

Thebalance between calories consumed and calories burned is whatdetermines an individual’s weight. When you consume more caloriesthan you metabolize, you end up gaining weight. On the other handconsuming fewer calories than you burn leads to losing weight.Discussed below are some of the causes of obesity.

Genetics.There are high chances that a person who has obese parents will endup being obese. Genetics affect the hormones in charge of fatregulation. An example of a genetic condition that leads to obesityis leptin deficiency. Leptin is the hormone that’s in charge of fatregulation. It signals the brain to demand less food when fat storagein the body is more than sufficient. For some reason, the body mightfail to produce leptin. This in-turn, makes the person to moreconsume calories and the body had already more than enough calories.Currently, scientists are carrying out research on leptin replacementas a treatment procedure for obesity [ CITATION Deb12 l 1033 ].

Overeating.Overeating foods that are high in fats lead to weight gain. Foodsthat are high in fat or calories are known high-density foods foodswith high calories in less quantity. Overfeeding on such types offoods can lead to obesity.

Consumptionof foods with high carbohydrates. There is still a lot of debate onthe role of carbohydrates in weight gain. Consumption ofcarbohydrates leads to increased glucose levels in the body. In turn,the increased blood glucose levels stimulate insulin production whichpromotes the development of fat tissues. Science has also proved thatsimple carbohydrates can lead to obesity since they are easilyabsorbed into the bloodstream as compared to complex carbohydrates,and this causes rapid insulin release.

Theeating frequency. The relationship between how often you eat and yourbody weight is controversial. It’s not uncommon to find obesepeople who eat fewer times in a day, and at the same time to findsomeone who is healthy but eats frequently. Scientific research hasshown that people who eat small quantities, four to five meals a day,have low cholesterol levels as compared to those who eat large mealsbut less frequently. The explanation behind this phenomena is therelease of insulin in the body. Large meals stimulate the releases ofhigh levels of insulin as compared to small meals.

Lacof physical exercises. People with sedentary lifestyles burn fewercalories as compared to physically active people. The NationalHealthy Survey in the United States showed that lack of exercise wasresponsible overweight issues in both sexes in the country.

Medicines.Some medication may lead weight gain. Medication such asantidepressants, anticonvulsants, and some diabetes medicines lead toweight gain in certain patients.

Psychologicalfactors. In some people emotions influence eating and body weight. Inresponse to certain emotions like stress or boredom, some people tendto eat more. It’s common among obese people to have issues of bingeeating.

Diseases.There are various diseases that lead to weight gain. Disease such ashypothyroidism and crushing-syndromes have been linked to obesity.

Socialissues. Some socials issues may be contributing factors to the highrate of obesity in the country. Issues such as poverty put people ina position they can’t afford a healthy lifestyle such as eatinghealthy foods and working out.

Effectsof Obesity

Obesityis harmful to one’s health. In the United States, obesity isresponsible 112,000 deaths yearly. Life expectancy is also reducedfor individuals with a BMI of over 35. Obesity is also a risk factorto a couple of diseases including insulin resistance, type 2diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, stroke, heart attack,heart failure, cancer, sleep apnea, degenerative arthritis, gout andgallstones.

SLEEPDEPRIVATION

Sleepis an important part of our lives. We spent almost a third of ourlives asleep. The amount and quality of sleep that one getsdetermines his or her day to day performance.

Causesof Sleep Deprivation

Voluntarybehavior. At times, people voluntarily decide to restrict their sleeptime. In most cases, such people are ignoring the fact that theirbodies demand more sleep time. The consumption of stimulants at nightcan also affect one`s sleep.

Commitments.People may restrict their sleep because of work or school commitment.Some jobs may interrupt the natural cycle of sleep, e.g. frequenttravel by air and this may interrupt one’s pattern of sleeping.School schedules and commitments make it difficult for young peopleto get the recommended hours of sleep [ CITATION Mat13 l 1033 ].

Theenvironment. Your immediate environment affects your sleepingpatterns and hours. Extreme temperatures or loud neighborhoods aresome of the environmental factors that may cause an Individual to besleep deprived.

Sleepapnea. This is a medical condition where the upper airway blocks,hence restricting the flow of air to the lungs. This makes theindividual to regularly wake up during the night. As a result, it’snot uncommon for patients with this condition to be sleep deprived.

Effectsof Sleep Deprivation

Psychologicaleffects. People who are sleep deprived are very moody. The slightestthings irritate them the most, and they fail to keep up with life’schallenges. In some cases, sleep deprived people have reported havingexperienced hallucinations. In extreme cases, confusion and paranoiaare very common.

Productivityeffects. When one is sleep deprived, the person feels exhausted andwouldn’t be willing to do anything. In the case, they end upcarrying out the task their concentration would be minimal. Lack ofenough sleep negatively affects your creativity and thinking. Inadults lack of productivity will be seen at the workplace and inyounger people, it will be seen at school [CITATION Cle16 l 1033 ].

Healtheffects. Long term sleep deprivation could lead to medical conditionssuch as high blood pressure, heart problems which may lead to astroke. Pregnant women may also face complications when they do notget enough sleep. Body weight can rapidly change. Sleep depravedpeople lack the psyche to engage in physical activities, and thisnegatively affects their health.

CONCLUSION

Theprevalence of obesity and sleep deprivation in the country has beensteadily increasing, however this should not undermine the necessityof containing these health conditions. As discussed in the paper,both conditions have adverse effects that call for their urgentmanagement.

WorksCited

Bianchi, Matt T. Sleep Deprivation and Disease: Effects on the Body, Brain and Behavior. Belin: Springer Science &amp Business Media, 2013.

Debasis Bagchi, Harry G. Preuss. Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2012.

Kushida, Clete A. Sleep Deprivation: Basic Science, Physiology and Behavior. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2016.

Obesity and Sleep Deprivation

  • Uncategorized

Obesityand Sleep Deprivation

Theworld’s population has continued to experience high prevalence inboth obesity and sleep deprivation in the recent past. It isestimated that over two-thirds of the adult population in America isobese, a condition found to be highly influenced by sleep deprivationamong other factors (Bagchi and Preuss). The ever escalatingprevalence of obesity and sleep deprivation has necessitated anin-depth evaluation of these two health conditions, with theconcentration being on reducing and eventually eliminating theseconditions. The paper will mainly focus on the causes and effects ofobesity and sleep deprivation in details.

Obesity

Obesityis a condition where one has excess body fat than the levelconsidered healthy. The most common measure of obesity is the bodymass index, where an individual with a body mass index above 30 isconsidered obese. It is common condition in the developed world butits prevalence has escalated greatly in the developing world in thepast decade (Bagchi and Preuss)

Causesof Obesity

Thebalance between calories consumed and calories burned is whatdetermines an individual’s weight. When one consumes more caloriesthan they can metabolize, they end up gaining weight. On the otherhand consuming fewer calories than one can burn leads to losingweight (Bagchi and Preuss).

Geneticshas been one of the reviewed causes of obesity in various studies.They have been found to affect the hormones in charge of fatregulation. It has been found that a person with obese has a higherchance of being obese as compared to one that has parents with therecommended weight. An example of a genetic condition that leads toobesity is leptin deficiency (Bagchi and Preuss). Leptin is thehormone that’s in charge of fat regulation. It signals the brain todemand less food when fat storage in the body is more thansufficient. For some reason, the body might fail to produce leptin.This, in turn, makes the person to more consume calories and the bodyhad already more than enough calories. Currently, scientists arecarrying out research on leptin replacement as a treatment procedurefor obesity (Bagchi and Preuss).

Overeatingis another leading cause of obesity. The excessive consumption offoods that are high in fats leads to weight gain. Foods that are highin fat or calories are known high-density foods, and overfeeding onsuch types of foods can lead to obesity.The consumption of foods withhigh carbohydrates has also been considered to cause obesity. Thereis still a lot of debate on the role of carbohydrates in weight gain.Consumption of carbohydrates leads to increased glucose levels in thebody. In turn, the increased blood glucose levels stimulate insulinproduction which promotes the development of fat tissues (Bagchi andPreuss). Science has also proved that simple carbohydrates can leadto obesity since they are easily absorbed into the bloodstream ascompared to complex carbohydrates, and this causes rapid insulinrelease.

Theeating frequency is another factor that has been perceived tocontribute to one being obese. The relationship between how often youeat and your body weight is controversial. It’s not uncommon tofind obese people who eat fewer times in a day, and at the same timeto find someone who is healthy but eats frequently. Scientificresearch has shown that people who eat small quantities, four to fivemeals a day, have low cholesterol levels as compared to those who eatlarge meals but less frequently. The explanation of this phenomena isthe release of insulin in the body. Large meals stimulate thereleases of high levels of insulin as compared to small meals.

Peoplewith sedentary lifestyles burn fewer calories as compared tophysically active people. Lack of adequate exercise is hence anothercontributing factor that has a great impact on an individual’sweight. The National Healthy Survey in the United States showed thatlack of exercise was responsible overweight issues in both sexes inthe country.

Somemedication has been found to cause weight gain. Medical drugs such asantidepressants, anticonvulsants, and some diabetes medicines lead toweight gain in certain patients which eventually leads to obesity(Bagchi and Preuss). In some people emotions influence eating andbody weight. In response to certain emotions like stress or boredom,some people tend to eat more. It’s common among obese people tohave issues of binge eating. The psychological state of an individualhas therefore been found to play an immense role in causing theincrease in cases of obesity.

Diseases,as well as social issues, have also been found to be causes ofobesity. There are various diseases that lead to weight gain. Diseasesuch as hypothyroidism and crushing-syndromes have been linked toobesity. Some socials issues, on the other hand, may also becontributing factors to the high rate of obesity in the country.Issues such as poverty put people in a position they can’t afford ahealthy lifestyle such as eating healthy foods and working out.

Effectsof Obesity

Inthe United States, obesity is responsible 112,000 deaths yearly. Lifeexpectancy is also reduced for individuals with a BMI of over 35.Obesity is also a risk factor to a couple of diseases includinginsulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, stroke, heart attack, heart failure, cancer,sleep apnea, degenerative arthritis, gout and gallstones (Bagchi andPreuss). Obesity is, therefore, a major risk factor of some of thechronic as well as lifestyle diseases that are continuously becomingcommon in our population.

Sleepdeprivation

Sleepdeprivation is characterized by the lack of enough sleep. The amountand quality of sleep that one gets determines his or her day to dayperformance.

Causesof Sleep Deprivation

Attimes, people voluntarily decide to restrict their sleep time. Inmost cases, such people are ignoring the fact that their bodiesdemand more sleep time. The consumption of stimulants at night canalso affect one`s sleep (Bianchi and Matt T.). Voluntary deprivationof ones is hence one of the major causes of lack of adequate sleep.

Peoplemay restrict their sleep because of work or school commitment. Somejobs may interrupt the natural cycle of sleep, e.g. frequent travelby air and this may interrupt one’s pattern of sleeping. Schoolschedules and commitments make it difficult for young people to getthe recommended hours of sleep (Bianchi and Matt T.). The immediateenvironment of an individual affects their sleeping patterns andhours. Extreme temperatures or loud neighborhoods are some of theenvironmental factors that may cause an Individual to be sleepdeprived.

Amedical condition known as sleep apnea, where the upper airwayblocks, hence restricting the flow of air to the lungs is anotherfactor may extremely reduce the hours that one is able to sleep. Thismakes the individual to regularly wake up during the night. As aresult, it’s not uncommon for patients with this condition to besleep deprived.

Effectsof Sleep Deprivation

Peoplewho are sleep deprived are affected psychologically and are oftenthought to be very moody, stressed and depressed (Bianchi and MattT.). The slightest things irritate them the most, and they fail tokeep up with life’s challenges. In some cases, sleep deprivedpeople have reported having experienced hallucinations. In extremecases, confusion and paranoia are very common.

Whenone is sleep deprived, the person feels exhausted and wouldn’t bewilling to do anything. In the case, they end up carrying out thetask their concentration would be minimal. Lack of enough sleepnegatively affects your creativity and thinking. In adults lack ofproductivity will be seen at the workplace and in younger people, itwill be seen at school (Kushida and Clete A). Low productivity in onedaily activity is one of the major effects as well as a symptom ofsleep deprivation.

Sleepdeprivation has been associated with various health effects includingobesity. Long term sleep deprivation could lead to medical conditionssuch as high blood pressure, heart problems which may lead to astroke. Pregnant women may also face complications when they do notget enough sleep (Kushida and Clete A). Body weight can rapidlychange. Sleep deprived people lack the psyche to engage in physicalactivities, and this negatively affects their health.

Conclusion

Ingeneral, the prevalence of obesity and sleep deprivation has beensteadily increasing, however, both conditions can be controlled andavoided. Evaluating the lifestyle of the people affected or thosethat are highly susceptible to these conditions is one of the majorinterventions that can go a long way in reducing their prevalence.Further investigation and assessment of these conditions should bedone to ensure that sustainable measures are put in place to ensureto control and eventually eliminate these conditions.

References

Bagchi,Debasis, and Harry G. Preuss. &quotObesity: Epidemiology,Pathophysiology, And Prevention.&quot.&nbspBocaRaton: CRC Press&nbspSecondEdition. (2012): n. pag. Print.

Bianchi,and Matt T. &quotSleep Deprivation And Disease: Effects On The Body,Brain And Behavior.&quot.&nbspBelin:Springer Science &amp Business Media&nbsp(2013):n. pag. Print.

Kushida,and Clete A. &quotSleep Deprivation&quot.&nbspBasicScience, Physiology and Behavior&nbsp(2016):n. pag. Print.