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Kohn criticizes the prevailing methods of assessment and proposes asystem that relies on the relationship between the student andteacher to provide feedbacks and holistic evaluation (Kohn 38). Iwonder how the education can be so wrong about such an obvious issueabout testing students objectively. Would it probably be that Kohn isblowing the issue out of proportion in order to convince people abouthis model about the ineffectiveness of the testing systems? AlthoughI would not refute some of his comments about the grading systemssince I personally crammed answers for my last summative assessmentin order to fill the right answers, I feel that the article fails toprovide a comprehensive scope of the current methods. In this light,I will critic Kohn’s ideas in the article “From Degrading toDe-grading” in order to show that the present testing methods areimportant in a competitive society. In a bid to perform this task, Iwill present a multidimensional perspective on the system suggestedby Kohn in relation to the current one.

It is essential to consider distinct evaluation methods like the onesuggested by Kohn. However, Kohn does not present an additionalmethod of evaluation but rather seeks to abolish and replace thecurrent system completely. I think that formative assessments areessential in designing education and do not portray all thedisadvantages described by Kohn on categorizing performance. Thismethod does not punish learners for their mistakes since it seeks todetermine how students are learning. The summative assessment assignsgrades and values according to how students are competitive inlearning. I think these models are reliable in identifying thestudents who are committed to learning. The best students pass examsdepending on how they were committed. In essence, I think this systemallows employers to determine the students and their suited roles inthe society. The 3 effects of grading presented by Kohn are alsodisputable. For instance, he states, “Grades tend to reducestudents’ interest in the learning itself” (Kohn 38). I thinkthat Kohn is misguided about the purpose of grading by assuming thatthere is a baseline grade that determines the interests of students.

Kohn also assumes that challenging tasks discourage students fromthinking effectively. Instead, I think that challenges boost theabilities of students and make them more fit to handle the realproblems in the field. He also makes another mistake by suggestingthat the students should either be accountable with grades or stopusing the grades in order to facilitate creativity. I think he shouldhave thought that these two attributes can be used together toprovide a better solution while applying the summative and formativeassessments. He discredits the vital attribute of competition thatprepares learners for the activities in the real world. Furthermore,Kohn does not consider that some students perform exemplary high inthe prevailing assessment models. They are happy to see their effortsrewarded by good grades. Instead, he presents an argument based onthose who fail but do not question their efforts in learning. Thehuman nature welcomes competition in schools and life. The gradesshould be seen as points of reference to categorize people and assignthem the appropriate duties depending on their abilities. It is asetup of making the available activities work for everyone in thebest way possible. For instance, I would not support a model wheresurgeons are selected from people who cannot comprehend how the humanbody is structured. The selection of a surgeon should rely on suchmerits as knowledge integration where a candidate understands thehuman body and its sensitivity in order to avoid any errors duringoperations.

By arguing against homework, Kohn subscribes to Cult of AcademicRelaxation that encourages laxity in learning. I do not think thatlaxity is the approach to encourage learning and relationshipsbetween educators and learners. Kohn states that grades, “spoilrelationships with students” (Kohn 39). I refute this argument byacknowledging that most good performers do not have bad relationshipswith their teachers. More so, the students willing to improve theirgrades improve their relationships with teachers in order to getassistance. Why would Kohn not argue that students would work hard toimprove their grades and enhance better relationships with teachers?I think that he is using extreme examples and logical fallacies todiscredit the grading system. Furthermore, since children are notable to make their decision, how would they tell that a subject isvital in their life without putting a gun in their heads as Kohndescribes? It is important to force students study because theycannot differentiate between the courses they will either take oravoid in future. It can only be a matter of selection once thelearners are recruited in all the subjects in order to identify thefitting one. For instance, I would not pursue a course in psychologyif I was not directed or forced to learn its basics as a child.

It is, therefore, arguable that Kohn’s ideas are debatable in thecurrent society. The society requires skilled and strong people whohave been selected to perform various duties. The students aretrained to handle tasks that suit them in the real life. The gradingsystem facilitates the education system in determining the mostsuited student for a specific task in the real world.

Works Cited

Kohn, Alfie. &quotFrom degrading to de-grading.&quot&nbspHighschool magazine&nbsp6.5 (1999): 38-43.

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Controlled Substances

Controlled substances can be defined differently depending on countryand state. For instance, the United States does not allow the abuseof any drug including those listed in the National Drug Code (NDC)which are not controlled substances (Kanehisa et al. D203). This codeexplains how pharmacological drugs should be used in the US and alsorestricts other applications (Kanehisa et al. D203). Some peoplewould argue that all drugs can be controlled substances. Each drugshould serve specified roles in treatment like relieving pain orfighting infections in the human body (Crick 408). In essence, mostdrugs are taken after the doctor issues a prescription to take them.If taking every drug requires authorization from a practitioner itwould then apply that all drugs are “controlled”. Illicit drugscause harm to their users by changing personal behaviors onperceiving things (Pal et al. 1079). The Controlled Substances Act(CSA) differentiates controlled and uncontrolled substances. They arereferred to as “controlled substances” since the governmentregulates them by restricting their use. The definition of controlledsubstances in real life situations by using law and assessingcounterarguments on its meaning in order to determine whether itincludes all drugs will be presented.


Controlled substances are drugs whose sale and use have been banneddue to their negative effects towards the health and welfare ofusers. The governmental institutions have defined controlledsubstances in varying perspectives depending on the control they wantto achieve among its citizens. There are various factors thatdetermine how the controlled substances can be identified. In theUnited States, this term refers to all drugs listed under the 5schedules of the Controlled Substance Act (CSA) (21U.S.C.801) thatsupersede their control within the federal law (Coulson and Caulkins767). The Act relies on instances of using the drugs including abuse,dependence, and medicine where some applications are restricted bymaking such applications illegal and others guided as medicationapproved by medical practitioners. The control is implemented at thefederal and state level of governance where individuals violatingthis law is fined or imprisoned by the enforcers. In this respect,some controlled substances are not illegal since they are prescribedto the people and sold in health facilities to treat patients. Inthis respect, all other substances not listed in these schedulescannot be defined as controlled substances in the United States.

Definition Defense

In a bid to identify whether a drug is controlled or not, a personcan refer to the 5 schedules of CSA, which identify substances andclassify them according to their effects. The schedule 1 substanceshave a high possibility of being abused and do not have any medicalrole. These substances are not safe to use according to medicalrecommendations (“Drug Enforcement Administration” 5042). Theyinclude bhang, methaqualone, LSD, heroin, and ecstasy (Perrone andNelson 2341). The second schedule substances also have a high abusepotential that can cause total dependence either physically orpsychologically. They include such narcotics as opium and morphineusually branded as Dilaudid, Demerol, Dolophine, Oxycontin andSublimaze among several others (“Drug Enforcement Administration”5042). The other types listed in this schedule are glutethimide,cocaine, amobarbital, and pentobarbital (Perrone and Nelson 2342).Thirdly, the possibility of abusing the schedule three substances islower than the first two. Similarly, they moderately affect theuser’s physical dependence and lead to a high dependency inpersonal psychology. They are made by combining various substances toform such products as Vicodin and Tylenol. Some of these substancesare used for treatment by medical doctors like Subutex and Suboxonein stabilizing opioid addicted patients (“Drug EnforcementAdministration” 5042). Apart from these narcotics, there are alsonon-narcotics (drugs that blunts senses) like Didrex, ketamine,phendimetrazine, and Oxandrin among others (Perrone and Nelson 2342).On the other hand, the possibility of abusing the schedule IVsubstances is relatively low as compared to those in schedule III.These include such rarely abused drugs as propoxyphene and othersbranded as Xanax, Halcion, Versed, Valium, Soma, and Restoril amongothers (“Drug Enforcement Administration” 5042). Finally, thepossibility of abusing the schedule V substances is relative to thatof schedule IV where the compounds have reduced amount of narcotics.These drugs have a medical application in analgesic, antidiarrheal,and antitussive conditions and are branded as Robitussin or Phenergan(“Drug Enforcement Administration” 5042). Any other substancethat is not listed within this Act can be a pharmacological drug ornon-drug despite its effects after abusing it intentionally.

Definition Examination

The law informs that having any of the drugs listed in the CSA isillegal when a person does not have a license or appropriateprescription from medical practitioners. The definition, therefore,indicates that the controlled substances are illegal. This aspectimplies that only the drugs and non-drugs listed in the CSA areillegal. However, the awareness on controlled substances may bedebatable today. It is arguable that the major population in theUnited States cannot identify if a prescription issued by a physicianis controlled or not. Even though they may have ideas about some ofthe restricted drugs like heroin and cocaine that keep on appearingin the media, some terms and brands may be technical to most people.In essence, most people do not check the composition and name of thedrugs prescribed by physicians. However, the law does not considerthis aspect in the society but rather emphasizes on finingindividuals with the listed substances (Betses and Brennan 989). Thestate can fine an individual for having any drug listed in theschedule 1-5 of the CSA or Drug Enforcement Act. The problem is howpeople can tell whether a drug is controlled or not. The current drugmanufacturing companies have many brands that make it hard for thepatient to differentiate. However, the US citizens are not arrestedfor having these pharmacological drugs. Controlled substances aremanaged by determining whether a person should have them or not aswell as their intention. In most cases, perpetrators are charged withpossession with the intention to traffic, sell, and distribute. Eachcase of possession has its weight that depends on the substancequantity, money held during the arrest, and other issues during thearrest. The penalties for drug-related crimes can range from fines toa life sentence in the United States. The controlled substance willalso have its weight on the case and sentencing depending on itslethality to the society. This proves that not all drugs arecontrolled substances since the rules used to control are not appliedin all.


The definition of controlled substances is not universally applicableto all countries in the world. Some substances listed under the CSAmay not appear in some countries depending on their regulations(Perrone and Nelson 2342). Even the United States has differentdefinitions of controlled substances and respective punishments thatextend from the federal regulation. In some countries, they also linkthem to controlled precursors where the materials used in making thedrugs are also restricted and defined in law alongside thesubstances. Other countries employ less strict drug enforcementpractices like Jamaica where possession of small amounts of marijuanais a petty crime. However, a universal set of rules has been designedto regulate a set of drugs termed as controlled substances in aninternational scope. These rules referred to as treaties include theUN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs andPsychotropic Substances, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, andConvention on Psychotropic Substances (Crick 408). These treatieshave been implemented in almost all countries to discourage trade ofcontrolled substances. Therefore, the definition does not apply toall the drugs being used in those countries. These treaties havespecified the risky drug under the control of international treaties.Investigators and researcher using controlled substances mustregister frequently. This registration is also a requirement for DEAagents using the substances in clinical application. However, theseinvestigators are not allowed to share the substances with otheragents unless they have licenses. However, there is no evidence thatthe pharmacological drugs are controlled in these countries. Apartfrom expanding the scope of definition, all these countries do notinclude all drugs as controlled substances.


In light of these ideas, the term “controlled substances” hasdiverse perspectives in the society, which determine how it isdefined. The definition will depend on the country, state,legislations, and treaties applied to identify the restrictedproducts. Each country provides a unique definition of controlledsubstances. They are substances affecting human health and welfare byaltering their normal physical and psychological conditions. Thegovernments implement these definitions to ensure that their citizensare not affected by addiction among other negative outcomesassociated with them. It is, therefore, the role of each person toensure that these substances remain controlled since the failure ofthis attribute would be critical to human life and stability.

Works Cited

Betses, Mitch, and Troyen Brennan. &quotAbusive prescribing ofcontrolled substances: A pharmacy view.&quot&nbspNew EnglandJournal of Medicine&nbsp369.11 (2013): 989-991.

Coulson, Carolyn, and Jonathan P. Caulkins. &quotScheduling of newlyemerging drugs: A critical review of decisions over 40years.&quot&nbspAddiction&nbsp107.4 (2012): 766-773.

Crick, Emily. &quotDrugs as an existential threat: An analysis ofthe international securitization of drugs.&quot&nbspInternationalJournal of Drug Policy&nbsp23.5 (2012): 407-414.

Drug Enforcement Administration. &quotSchedules of controlledsubstances: temporary placement of three synthetic cannabinoids intoschedule I. Final order.&quot&nbspFederal register&nbsp80.20(2015): 5042.

Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Kawashima, M., Furumichi, M., &ampTanabe, M. (2014). Data, information, knowledge and principle: backto metabolism in KEGG.&nbspNucleic acids research,&nbsp42(D1),D199-D205.

Pal, R., Megharaj, M., Kirkbride, K. P., &amp Naidu, R. (2013).Illicit drugs and the environment—a review.&nbspScience of theTotal Environment,&nbsp463, 1079-1092.

Perrone, Jeanmarie, and Lewis S. Nelson. &quotMedicationreconciliation for controlled substances: An “ideal”prescription-drug monitoring program.&quot&nbspNew EnglandJournal of Medicine&nbsp366.25 (2012): 2341-2343.

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Problem 1: Card Tower

In a bid to design a unique card tower, I will use the freeassociation technique of brainstorming to come up with a unique andlong tower. I will present two structures that I can form using thecards below:

Figures1: Tower structure sketch Figure 2: Photo of card tower

It may be easier to form the first tower than the second one infigure 2. I only managed to form the second tower after trying for 12times. However, forming the first tower was much easier, and I wasable to understand its design at the 2 trial. In this paper, I willdescribe the design of the first tower where two cards support eachother and form column stand for the levels on top. The levels areseparated from each other by cards lying horizontally. The firstfigure is a concept sketch showing how the tower is to be designed.However, the design present in this image may not represent the exactstructure of the tower since uniformity may not follow all the rules.

Problem 2: CTA

CTASystem from Last Week

In the earlier task on CTA system, I determined several areas whichrequired systematic redesigning in terms of payment methods,structural design, and agency restructuring. The Ventro paymentmethod should be universal to offer compatibility with othercompanies. It is also important to design a cohesive managementagency that supersedes all CTA operations and decisions in order toavoid conflicts of interest (“Chicago Transit Authority” par. 4).However, it is important to apply other strategies to affirm theproblem using scientific methods to identify the major problem, andhow it can be solved.


I chose the freewriting technique of brainstorming to identify otherimportant areas which required changes. I came up with an idea ofusing the current information technology strategies to collect databy Survey Monkey, emails, Twitter, and Facebook as well as usingGoogle search engine to get data from people and literature. Ithought it would be an easy way to get an idea of the ineffectivenessof the CTA. I managed to list station design and location, populationserved per area, services delivery methods, time spent to serve aclient, rates of card failure, reported misinformation attributableto many agencies, timelines, and customer care commitment. I wroteall these points down and provided some notes on what each aspectincorporated.

ResearchBased Method

After determining the most competitive design for the CTA, aliterature search would assist to check how the most competitivetransport services like CTA operate. The information can be retrievedfrom the search engines as well as peer-reviewed journals and books.Using Google search engine can help to locate sources of reliabledesigns to improve the effectiveness of CTA. Scholarly journals areavailable in the Google Schalor web searches using the keywords likeCTA, transport services, Ventro and RTA.


Works Cited

Chicago Transit Authority 2016. Web. 5 Dec. 2016).&lthttps://archpaper.com/tag/chicago-transit-authority/&gt.