Mostof the modern and post-modern management theories arose during theindustrial revolution. Managers adopted the modern theories ofmanagement slowly since they believed that diversity of organizationscould only give the practice a short time. The modern theoriesfocused more on maximizing outputs and placed the employee in theposition of a cog in a machine. Managers adopted scientificapproaches such as division and specialization of labor. This helpedincrease expertise among the employees thus increasing the overalloutput. Also in the modern theories of management, the managersdeveloped a formal chain of command between the employees and themanagement. This helped improve communication between the managementand the employees.
Thepost-modern theories aim at humanizing the employees by consideringtheir personal needs. This is done by developing incentives that arerelevant to the organization`s employees, training and developingemployee career. The postmodern theories advocate for the division oflabor not as an individual but as a team. From all this advancement,the management can motivate its employees and improve communicationwithin the organization. Therefore by combining these theories, themodern managers can understand employee motivation and consequentlymaximize productivity. Employees’ efforts need to be appreciatedand rewarded so as to make them feel part of the organization thusincreasing their productivity.
Theworkplace in the 20thCentury has seen a lot of change due to Globalization. Trade barriershave been opened, and this has sparked a new cause in the managementof organizations. Cultural diversity is increasing, and new policieshave to be made to incorporate this new environment. Both theorganizational and employee earnings are affected with the companiesreaping the benefits and the employees taking the hit. Training ofemployees has also experienced change so as to make them fit into theglobal market and the increasing workforce diversity.
Culturaldiversity has provided the organization with a vast pool of differentminds with different ideas, and thus matters at hand can be analyzedfrom different perspectives. Therefore with the different experiencesheld by the employees, the organization can come up with moreefficient decisions than when employees are of the same culturalbracket. Other than the benefits, cultural diversity in the workplacebrings with it different opinions, beliefs, and thoughts aboutsomething. Therefore with these differences, a tendency ofinterpersonal conflicts has increased in organizations. Otherdimensions such as politics, ethnicity and many others have gotteninto the organizations due to globalization, and this affects theorganizational behavior adversely.