Pathophysiological Mechanisms

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PathophysiologicalMechanisms

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Thepathophysiological mechanisms of chronic asthma include thetightening of the smooth muscle that lines the respiratory tubes,which include the trachea and bronchi, bouts of bronchoconstriction,and chronic inflammation of the patient’s respiratory tubes. Acuteasthma exacerbations comprise of fits of shortness of breath,coughing, chest tightness, and wheezing. Its pathophysiologicalmechanisms include inflammatory reactions in the airways,constriction of small air pathways with mucus, and hyperactivity inthe bronchi (Kwok, McPhee, &amp Hammer, 2010). During anexacerbation, the blood oxygen content starts declining, and thecarbon dioxide level increases gradually. These changes in blood gascontent cause the feeling of shortness of breath. The similaritiesbetween these pathophysiological mechanisms include constriction andinflammation in the air pathways. The differences between the two areasthma exacerbations cause mucus to clog the airways, while acuteasthma does not necessarily lead to an increase in mucus production(Huether, &amp McCance, 2017).

Forboth ailments, a person’s behavior can either put them at risk orreduce the chances of them getting further complications. Activitiesthat increase one’s risk of pathophysiology include smoking andusing gas stoves that produce nitrogen dioxide, which is a commonindoor pollutant. To diagnose a patient for either of the twodisorders, finding out about their activities is important, as itprovides information on the possible risk factors. Treatment wouldinvolve advising the patient to avoid the activities that put them atrisk, such as using alternative cooking methods like electriccookers, and to stop smoking (&quotAmerican Lung Association ®,&quot2017.)

Pathophysiology

Airway constriction

Inflammation

Tightening of respiratory smooth muscle

Epidemiology

Currently affects about 300 million people globally

Causes 250 thousand annual deaths

By 2025, the number of patients may grow to 400 million.

Treatment

Reduce contact with risk factors

Take the medication as prescribed

Maintain normal activity levels

Diagnosis

Checking for risk factors in patient’s activities

Review of family history

Physical examination

CHRONIC ASTHMA

Clinical Presentation

Coughing

Wheezing

Chest tightness

Pathophysiology

Increased mucus production

Constriction and inflammation of airways

Hyperactivity in the bronchi

Epidemiology

In the U.S, there were more than 15 million hospital visits last year due to exacerbations alone

About 2 million patients needed emergency management of asthma exacerbation last year (Plus, 2017).

ACUTE ASTHMA EXACERBATION

Clinical Presentation

Shortness of breath

Coughing

Chest tightness

Treatment

Reduce contact with risk factors

Take the medication as prescribed

Maintain normal activity levels

Diagnosis

Checking for risk factors in patient’s activities

Review of family history

Physical examination

References

AmericanLung Association ®.(2017). AmericanLung Association.Retrieved 29 March 2017, from http://www.lung.org/

Huether,S., &amp McCance, K. (2017). UnderstandingPathophysiology(6th Ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

Kwok,Y., McPhee, S., &amp Hammer, G. (2010). Pathophysiologyof disease(2nd Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Plus,G. (2017). Asthmaand Allergy Foundation of America.Asthmaand Allergy Foundation of America.Retrieved 29 March 2017, from http://www.aafa.org

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