Philosophy

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PHILOSOPHY

Relativism

People havedifferent ideas about a particular issue. The validity of perceptionsand beliefs of an individual is relative. Kirk R. (2012) definesrelativism as the philosophical perspective that argues that there isno absolute truth and that the views of different individuals areequally valid. According to this philosophy, truth is subject tochange with time. I disagree with the idea that truth is relative.The reason why truth may be thought to change is because of theexistence of false beliefs and undiscovered truth. What human beingsknow about an object or a phenomenon may be a subset of the truth.Truth should be justified when the all the details about an object orcondition is uncovered. For example, the human heart will remain tobe what it is unless its integrity is interfered with. The fact thatwe are not exposed to certain aspects of a phenomenon does not makethe truth about it relative.

Differences Between Protagoras`s Relativism and Socrates`sDialectic Method

According toProtagoras’ relativism, human beings are the measure anddeterminant of the nature of truth. This standpoint holds that anystatement about a given phenomenon can be true so long as it providesan explanation about the reason why various events happen in themanner they do. Protagoras’ position about the nature of the truthis that it is subject to change and all views are equally valid.Socrates’ dialectic method, on the other, argues that the nature ofthe truth of a given happening is based on the knowledge of anindividual. Zeyl D. (2012) argues that the truth about a phenomenonis one, truth is knowledge, and no individual does a mistakewillingly. According to Socrates, the amount of knowledge a personhas determines the nature of truth from their view. The dialecticmethod suggests that basing on a limited source to justify thatsomething is true is not enough.

Plato`s Four Cardinal Virtues

Courage,justice, temperance, and wisdom are the four cardinal virtues ofPlato. They are all important in the society in various ways. Membersof the society should be courageous to develop confidence thatenables us to overcome the challenges we face in life. Courageenhances the competency of leaders in the society to direct followerstowards a better future. Justice is equally essential since itenables the members of the society to behave in an orderly manner.Besser. &amp Slote (2015) argue that it provides guidelines aboutacceptable behaviors and actions in the society to maintain order andmoral values. Temperance is the virtue that enables an individual toact well and within the moral values of their community. It providesa person with the reasoning ability to enable them to know what isright and wrong. Temperance prevents members of a community fromfalling into temptations. Wisdom is an important virtue in thesociety that enables its members to develop and implement appropriatesolutions to the problems affecting their lives.

Stoicism

Stoicsbelieved that various events in an individual’s life are results offate. They believed that the life of human beings on earth isdependent on predestination and free will. Deming D. (2016) arguethat the occurrence of events is the result and manifestation ofLogos that permeates the cosmos. According to Stoics, there arehappenings which human beings control while there are certain thingsthat people cannot manipulate to produce the desired result. Whenpeople are frustrated with some events in their life, they need tofind out what they can control to achieve specified results. It is atthis point where individuals apply their knowledge and wisdom inmaking choices. When certain phenomena are beyond our control, weshould not waste our time and energy in finding a solution. Childrenhave no control over the social class in which they are born. Aperson is not responsible for being born into a low-income family.However, they can determine whether they stay in poverty or improvetheir economy through decisions they make in life.

Influence of Philosophers

Thephilosopher who has initiated a significant change in my thinking isSocrates. He has made me realize the importance of knowledge in thepursuit of the truth about various phenomena in our life and theenvironment (Zeyl, 2012). The aspects that an individual knows aboutan object or situation vary significantly in the society. Those whoknow much are closer to the truth than those who have littleknowledge. Truth about certain events in my life is important sinceit enhances my capacity to improve how I live. Socrates has alsoenabled me to understand why we are always seeking knowledge. Hejustifies my desire to know more about the reason why certain thingshappen to human beings.

A Thought Experiment

TittleP. (2016) describes a thought experiment as the process of engagingin hypothetical reasoning about an event. Like the scientificexperiments, a thought experiment involves using specified parametersto set up a situation and then apply logic to determine the resultand how it is achieved. There are certain qualitative determinants ofpleasure in a person’s life. An example a thought is my life afterschool. The life in the future is dependent on my current actions andbehaviors that are represented in the decisions I make. If I focus onmy academic work and appreciate the factors that enhance it, I willbe in a position to get a good grade and consequently, a good jobafter graduation. Getting an employment with a high salary will putme in a position to do things that will bring happiness to me, mywife and children. I will also be in a position to improve thefinancial position of my parents and siblings.

Marx`s Concept of Alienation

Marx`sperspective of alienation criticizes capitalism. He refers to thereason for human existence as species-being. The essence of poeple isto transform the world to address our needs. This is whatdistinguishes use from other living things such as wild anddomesticated animals. According to Marx, executing what defines usdistinctively as humans is what brings a true fulfillment (Lee,2013). Capitalism results in alienation since it disconnects peoplefrom species-being. It alienates human workers from others throughcompetition that estranges people from one another. Capitalismalienates human beings from the products of their labor. Despitehaving contributed to the production process directly, workers buyproducts of their labor from those who own production systems.

Nietzsche`s

Nietzsche`s philosophy holds that to become fully human, people needto avoid ideas of evil and sin. He proposed that traditional Westernphilosophy and Christianity destroys the natural capabilities ofhumanity. The restrictions that are results of tradition and religionprevent people from achieving their innate desires. By proclaiming“God is death,” Nietzsche`s wanted human beings to live freely.The philosophy insists that there are rules, morals, absolute valuesand certainties on which people should base their lives. Nietzsche`sargued that there exists a superman who is in the pursuit of bringingredemption to human beings who are willing to explore humancapability to the fullest (Fritzsche, 2013).

References

Besser L. &amp Slote (2015), The Routledge Companion to VirtueEthics, Routledge

Deming, D. (2016).&nbspScience and technology in world history.Jefferson, N.C: McFarland &amp Co., Publishers.

Fritzsche P. (2013), Nietzsche and the Death of God: SelectedWritings, Waveland Press

Kirk R. (2012), Relativism and Reality: A ContemporaryIntroduction, Routledge

Lee, S. H. (2013).&nbspEnd of communism. Place of publicationnot identified: Lulu Com.

Tittle P. (2016), What If…: Collected Thought Experiments in, Routledge

Zeyl D. (2013), Encyclopedia of Classical ,Routledge